Abstract

We present KrF excimer laser-induced dynamics of Bragg grating growths in GeO$_2$ doped microstructured optical fibers. The studied fibers all have 6 rings of airholes in a hexagonal lattice and a GeO$_2$ doped region in the center of the microstructure. We compare the growth rates of fiber Bragg gratings in the different microstructured fibers with UV grating inscription. The influence of the doping level, the airhole filling factor, the airhole pitch distance and the fiber orientation are investigated. We expand the range of microstructured optical fibers in which Bragg gratings can be inscribed, achieving reflection strengths that are useable for FBG-based sensing applications, even for doped regions with GeO$_2$ concentrations as low as 1.36 mol% and 0.45 mol%.

© 2010 IEEE

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2009

S. Pissadakis, M. Livitziis, G. D. Tsibidis, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, "Type IIA grating inscription in a highly nonlinear microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 227-229 (2009).

A. Cusano, D. Paladino, A. Iadicicco, "Microstructured fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1663-1697 (2009).

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6-8 (2009).

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1290-1292 (2009).

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, "Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres," Open Opt. J. 3, 19-23 (2009).

M. Becker, L. Fernandes, M. Rothhardt, S. Brueckner, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, O. Frazao, H. Bartelt, P. Marques, "Inscription of fiber Bragg grating arrays in pure silica suspended core fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1453-1455 (2009).

Y. Wang, H. Bartelt, M. Becker, S. Brueckner, J. Bergmann, J. Kobelke, M. Rothhardt, "Fiber Bragg grating inscription in pure-silica and ge-doped photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Opt. 48, 1963-1968 (2009).

2008

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, "Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554-556 (2008).

K. Cook, A. Pohl, J. Canning, "High-temperature type IIa gratings in 12-ring photonic crystal fibre with germanosilicate core," J.Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08031- (2008).

2007

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Dynamic characteristics of nonlinear Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 455-467 (2007).

M. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber Bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).

G. D. Marshall, D. J. Kan, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. J. Withford, "Transverse coupling to the core of a photonic crystal fiber: The photo-inscription of gratings," Opt. Exp. 15, 7876-7887 (2007).

2006

1999

1997

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

1993

P. Lemaire, R. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO$_2$ doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191- (1993).

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

P. Lemaire, R. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO$_2$ doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191- (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, "Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554-556 (2008).

M. Becker, L. Fernandes, M. Rothhardt, S. Brueckner, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, O. Frazao, H. Bartelt, P. Marques, "Inscription of fiber Bragg grating arrays in pure silica suspended core fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1453-1455 (2009).

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Degrieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 6-8 (2009).

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1290-1292 (2009).

S. Pissadakis, M. Livitziis, G. D. Tsibidis, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, "Type IIA grating inscription in a highly nonlinear microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 227-229 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol.

P. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

A. Cusano, D. Paladino, A. Iadicicco, "Microstructured fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1663-1697 (2009).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

J.Eur. Opt. Soc.

K. Cook, A. Pohl, J. Canning, "High-temperature type IIa gratings in 12-ring photonic crystal fibre with germanosilicate core," J.Eur. Opt. Soc. 3, 08031- (2008).

Open Opt. J.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, M. Stevenson, "Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres," Open Opt. J. 3, 19-23 (2009).

Opt. Exp.

G. D. Marshall, D. J. Kan, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. J. Withford, "Transverse coupling to the core of a photonic crystal fiber: The photo-inscription of gratings," Opt. Exp. 15, 7876-7887 (2007).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

M. Antkowiak, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Dynamic characteristics of nonlinear Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 455-467 (2007).

Other

M. W. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. R. Mueller, "High-mechanical-strength single-pulse draw tower gratings," Proc. SPIE (2004) pp. 127-135.

T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, J. V. Erps, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, J. Wojcik, C. Chojetzki, H. Thienpont, "Sensing with photonic crystal fibres," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Intell. Signal Process. (2007) pp. 815-820.

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, "Photonic crystal fibers: New opportunities for sensing," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 66190G-.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

H. R. Sørensen, J. B. Jensen, J. B. Jensen, F. Bruyere, K. P. Hansen, "Practical hydrogen loading of air silica fibres," Proc. BGPP (2005) pp. 247-249.

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