Abstract

This paper demonstrates detection of methane using tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) through difference frequency generation (DFG) in order to address fundamental rotational-vibrational absorption lines, located around 3404 nm. Direct detection confirms that wavelength referencing of recovered lineshapes, developed for Near infra-red (Near-IR) systems, has been successfully transferred to the presented Middle infra-red (Mid-IR) system. Traditional 1f and 2 f TDLS with WMS detection regimes are also functionally confirmed analogous to their Near-IR equivalents.

© 2010 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Werle, F. Selmr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, B. Janker, "Near- and midinfrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101-114 (2002).
  2. A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A phasor decomposition method for calibration-free measurements of gas concentration and pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 432-440 (2008).
  3. W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, G. Stewart, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: System characterization in conventional and new approaches," IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1079-1088 (2008).
  4. K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications," Proc. Eur. Workshop Optical Fibre Sens. (2007).
  5. P. Werle, "A review of advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors," Spectrochimica Acta Part A 54, 197-236 (1998).
  6. P. Werle, "Laser excess noise and interferometric effects in frequency-modulated diode-laser spectrometers," Appl. Phys. B 60, 499-506 (1995).
  7. P. Werle, A. Popov, "Application of antimonide lasers for gas sensing in the 3โ€“4 $\mu$m range," Appl. Opt. 38, 1494-1501 (1999).
  8. C. Young, S. S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, B. Mizaikoff, "External cavity widely tunable quantum cascade laser based hollow waveguide gas sensors for multianalyte detection," Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. 140, 24-28 (2009).
  9. S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, L. Gianfrani, A. Salhi, Y. Rouillard, A. Ouvrard, D. Romanini, "Looking into the volcano with a midIR DFB diode laser and cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Exp. 14, (2006).
  10. M. Takahashi, S. Ohara, T. Tezuka, H. Ashizawa, M. Endo, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, "Trace gas monitor based on difference frequency generation at 4 $\mu$m using mass-production laser diodes as pump and signal sources," Appl. Phys. B 78, 229-233 (2004).
  11. W. Chen, G. Mouret, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, "Mid-infrared trace gas detection using continuous-wave difference frequency generation in periodically poled RbTiOAsO$_{4}$," Appl. Phys. B 72, 873-876 (2001).
  12. W. Chen, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, "Recent advances in continuous-wave laser difference-frequency generation in the mid infrared: State of the art, applications and perspectives," Recent Res. Development Appl. Phys. 5, 27-68 (2002).
  13. K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Compact laser difference-frequency spectrometer for multicomponent trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B 66, 531-538 (1998).
  14. D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Real-time measurements of trace gases using a compact difference-frequency-based sensor operating at 3.5 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. B 67, 339-345 (1998).
  15. Quantum Electronics (Wiley, 1989).
  16. Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, "Photorefractive effect in a periodically poled Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$ channel waveguide," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 267-270 (2004).
  17. Z. Cao, X. Gao, W. Chen, H. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Gong, "Study of quasi-phase matching wavelength acceptance bandwidth for periodically poled LiNbO$_{3}$ crystal-based difference-frequency generation," Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 589-593 (2009).
  18. S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, P. Robert, "Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: Combined frequency and intensity laser modulation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6728-6738 (2003).

2009 (2)

C. Young, S. S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, B. Mizaikoff, "External cavity widely tunable quantum cascade laser based hollow waveguide gas sensors for multianalyte detection," Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. 140, 24-28 (2009).

Z. Cao, X. Gao, W. Chen, H. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Gong, "Study of quasi-phase matching wavelength acceptance bandwidth for periodically poled LiNbO$_{3}$ crystal-based difference-frequency generation," Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 589-593 (2009).

2008 (2)

A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A phasor decomposition method for calibration-free measurements of gas concentration and pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 432-440 (2008).

W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, G. Stewart, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: System characterization in conventional and new approaches," IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1079-1088 (2008).

2006 (1)

S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, L. Gianfrani, A. Salhi, Y. Rouillard, A. Ouvrard, D. Romanini, "Looking into the volcano with a midIR DFB diode laser and cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Exp. 14, (2006).

2004 (2)

M. Takahashi, S. Ohara, T. Tezuka, H. Ashizawa, M. Endo, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, "Trace gas monitor based on difference frequency generation at 4 $\mu$m using mass-production laser diodes as pump and signal sources," Appl. Phys. B 78, 229-233 (2004).

Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, "Photorefractive effect in a periodically poled Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$ channel waveguide," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 267-270 (2004).

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

P. Werle, F. Selmr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, B. Janker, "Near- and midinfrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101-114 (2002).

W. Chen, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, "Recent advances in continuous-wave laser difference-frequency generation in the mid infrared: State of the art, applications and perspectives," Recent Res. Development Appl. Phys. 5, 27-68 (2002).

2001 (1)

W. Chen, G. Mouret, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, "Mid-infrared trace gas detection using continuous-wave difference frequency generation in periodically poled RbTiOAsO$_{4}$," Appl. Phys. B 72, 873-876 (2001).

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

P. Werle, "A review of advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors," Spectrochimica Acta Part A 54, 197-236 (1998).

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Compact laser difference-frequency spectrometer for multicomponent trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B 66, 531-538 (1998).

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Real-time measurements of trace gases using a compact difference-frequency-based sensor operating at 3.5 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. B 67, 339-345 (1998).

1995 (1)

P. Werle, "Laser excess noise and interferometric effects in frequency-modulated diode-laser spectrometers," Appl. Phys. B 60, 499-506 (1995).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

P. Werle, "Laser excess noise and interferometric effects in frequency-modulated diode-laser spectrometers," Appl. Phys. B 60, 499-506 (1995).

M. Takahashi, S. Ohara, T. Tezuka, H. Ashizawa, M. Endo, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, "Trace gas monitor based on difference frequency generation at 4 $\mu$m using mass-production laser diodes as pump and signal sources," Appl. Phys. B 78, 229-233 (2004).

W. Chen, G. Mouret, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, "Mid-infrared trace gas detection using continuous-wave difference frequency generation in periodically poled RbTiOAsO$_{4}$," Appl. Phys. B 72, 873-876 (2001).

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Compact laser difference-frequency spectrometer for multicomponent trace gas detection," Appl. Phys. B 66, 531-538 (1998).

D. G. Lancaster, D. Richter, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Real-time measurements of trace gases using a compact difference-frequency-based sensor operating at 3.5 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. B 67, 339-345 (1998).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, G. Stewart, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: System characterization in conventional and new approaches," IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1079-1088 (2008).

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, "Photorefractive effect in a periodically poled Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$ channel waveguide," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 267-270 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A phasor decomposition method for calibration-free measurements of gas concentration and pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 432-440 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, L. Gianfrani, A. Salhi, Y. Rouillard, A. Ouvrard, D. Romanini, "Looking into the volcano with a midIR DFB diode laser and cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Exp. 14, (2006).

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

Z. Cao, X. Gao, W. Chen, H. Wang, W. Zhang, Z. Gong, "Study of quasi-phase matching wavelength acceptance bandwidth for periodically poled LiNbO$_{3}$ crystal-based difference-frequency generation," Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 589-593 (2009).

P. Werle, F. Selmr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, B. Janker, "Near- and midinfrared laser-optical sensors for gas analysis," Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 101-114 (2002).

Recent Res. Development Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Chen, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, "Recent advances in continuous-wave laser difference-frequency generation in the mid infrared: State of the art, applications and perspectives," Recent Res. Development Appl. Phys. 5, 27-68 (2002).

Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. (1)

C. Young, S. S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, B. Mizaikoff, "External cavity widely tunable quantum cascade laser based hollow waveguide gas sensors for multianalyte detection," Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. 140, 24-28 (2009).

Spectrochimica Acta Part A (1)

P. Werle, "A review of advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors," Spectrochimica Acta Part A 54, 197-236 (1998).

Other (2)

K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications," Proc. Eur. Workshop Optical Fibre Sens. (2007).

Quantum Electronics (Wiley, 1989).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.