Abstract

A novel optical beamformer concept is introduced that can be used for seamless control of the reception angle in broadband wireless receivers employing a large phased array antenna (PAA). The core of this beamformer is an optical beamforming network (OBFN), using ring resonator-based broadband delays, and coherent optical combining. The electro-optical conversion is performed by means of single-sideband suppressed carrier modulation, employing a common laser, Mach-Zehnder modulators, and a common optical sideband filter after the OBFN. The unmodulated laser signal is then re-injected in order to perform balanced coherent optical detection, for the opto-electrical conversion. This scheme minimizes the requirements on the complexity of the OBFN, and has potential for compact realization by means of full integration on chip. The impact of the optical beamformer concept on the performance of the full receiver system is analyzed, by modeling the combination of the PAA and the beamformer as an equivalent two-port RF system. The results are illustrated by a numerical example of a PAA receiver for satellite TV reception, showing that—when properly designed—the beamformer hardly affects the sensitivity of the receiver.

© 2009 IEEE

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2010 (1)

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, W. van Etten, "Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 19-31 (2010).

2007 (3)

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip ring resonator-based 1$\,\times\,$8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1130-1132 (2007).

J. Capmany, D. Novak, "Microwave photonics combines two worlds," Nature Photonics 1, 319-330 (2007).

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Borreman, "Box-shaped dielectric waveguides: A new concept in integrated optics?," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2579-2589 (2007).

2006 (5)

R. A. Minasian, "Photonical signal processing of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 832-846 (2006).

A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

M. A. Piqueras, "Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 887-899 (2006).

D. B. Hunter, M. E. Parker, J. L. Dexter, "Demonstration of a continuously variable true-time delay beamformer using a multichannel chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 861-867 (2006).

C. H. Cox III, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. L. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 906-920 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. S. Rasras, "Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 834-836 (2005).

2004 (2)

N. A. Riza, M. A. Arain, S. A. Khan, "Hybrid analog-digital variable fiber-optic delay line," J. Lighw. Technol 22, 619-624 (2004).

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, D. J. Jackson, "Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 726-730 (2004).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

G. Grosskopf, "Photonic 60-GHz maximum directivity beam former for smart antennas in mobile broad-band communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1169-1171 (2002).

2001 (2)

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, "Single side-band modulation performance of a LiNbO$_3$ integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 364-366 (2001).

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).

2000 (2)

N. Madamopoulos, N. A. Riza, "Demonstration of an all-digital 7-bit 33-channel photonic delay line for phased-array radars," Appl. Opt. 39, 4168-4181 (2000).

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andrés, D. Pastor, "Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352-1360 (2000).

1998 (2)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "Dispersion-induced bandwidth limitation of variable true time delay lines based on linearly chirped fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 34, 209-211 (1998).

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, "Optical single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulator for wide-band signal processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 859-863 (1998).

1997 (5)

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, K. Y. Lau, "Elimination of the fibre chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimetre-wave optical transmission," Electron. Lett. 33, 512-513 (1997).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. Dodds, B. Davies, S. Walklin, "10 Gbit/s optical single sideband system," Electron. Lett. 33, 971-973 (1997).

W. E. Stephens, T. R. Joseph, "System characteristics of direct modulated and externally modulated RF fiber-optic links," J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 380-387 (1997).

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, "Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241-243 (1997).

1996 (3)

M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, "Two-dimensional fiber-optic control of a true time-steered array transmitter," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 2696-2702 (1996).

R. A. Soref, "Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering," Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325-333 (1996).

D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Antoine, J. P. Huignard, D. Philipper, P. Granger, "Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays," Appl. Opt 35, 5293-5300 (1996).

1995 (1)

R. Montgomery, R. DeSalvo, "A novel technique for double sideband suprressed carrier modulation of optical fields," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 434-436 (1995).

1993 (1)

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, "Fiber optic prism true time delay antenna feed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347-1349 (1993).

1992 (3)

R. Soref, "Optical dispersion technique for time delay beam steering," Appl. Opt. 31, 7395-7397 (1992).

A. P. Goutzoulis, D. K. Davies, J. M. Zomp, "Hybrid electronic fiber optic wavelength-multiplexed system for true time-delay steering of phased array antennas," Opt. Eng. 31, 2312-2322 (1992).

R. A. Griffin, D. D. Sampson, D. A. Jackson, "Demonstration of data-transmission using coherent correlation to reconstruct a coded pulse sequence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 513-515 (1992).

1988 (1)

K. Oda, N. Takato, H. Toba, K. Nosu, "A wide-band guided-wave periodic multi/demultiplexer with ring resonator for optical FDM transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1016-1023 (1988).

1985 (1)

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, T. K. Yee, "A dual-detector optical heterodyne receiver for local oscillator noise suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1110-1122 (1985).

1972 (1)

B. J. Forman, "Directivity characteristics of scannable planar arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 20, 245-252 (1972).

1966 (1)

A. Waldman, G. J. Wooley, "Noise temperature of a phased array receiver," The Microwave Journal 89-96 (1966).

Appl. Opt (1)

D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Antoine, J. P. Huignard, D. Philipper, P. Granger, "Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays," Appl. Opt 35, 5293-5300 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (4)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "Dispersion-induced bandwidth limitation of variable true time delay lines based on linearly chirped fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 34, 209-211 (1998).

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, K. Y. Lau, "Elimination of the fibre chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimetre-wave optical transmission," Electron. Lett. 33, 512-513 (1997).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. Dodds, B. Davies, S. Walklin, "10 Gbit/s optical single sideband system," Electron. Lett. 33, 971-973 (1997).

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

R. A. Soref, "Fiber grating prism for true time delay beamsteering," Fiber Integr. Opt. 15, 325-333 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, D. J. Jackson, "Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 726-730 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, "Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241-243 (1997).

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip ring resonator-based 1$\,\times\,$8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1130-1132 (2007).

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, "Fiber optic prism true time delay antenna feed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347-1349 (1993).

G. Grosskopf, "Photonic 60-GHz maximum directivity beam former for smart antennas in mobile broad-band communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1169-1171 (2002).

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, "Single side-band modulation performance of a LiNbO$_3$ integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 364-366 (2001).

M. S. Rasras, "Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 834-836 (2005).

R. Montgomery, R. DeSalvo, "A novel technique for double sideband suprressed carrier modulation of optical fields," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 434-436 (1995).

R. A. Griffin, D. D. Sampson, D. A. Jackson, "Demonstration of data-transmission using coherent correlation to reconstruct a coded pulse sequence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 513-515 (1992).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. (1)

B. J. Forman, "Directivity characteristics of scannable planar arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 20, 245-252 (1972).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, "Two-dimensional fiber-optic control of a true time-steered array transmitter," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 2696-2702 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (5)

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andrés, D. Pastor, "Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352-1360 (2000).

D. B. Hunter, M. E. Parker, J. L. Dexter, "Demonstration of a continuously variable true-time delay beamformer using a multichannel chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 861-867 (2006).

M. A. Piqueras, "Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 887-899 (2006).

R. A. Minasian, "Photonical signal processing of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 832-846 (2006).

C. H. Cox III, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. L. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 906-920 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, W. van Etten, "Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 19-31 (2010).

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Borreman, "Box-shaped dielectric waveguides: A new concept in integrated optics?," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2579-2589 (2007).

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, T. K. Yee, "A dual-detector optical heterodyne receiver for local oscillator noise suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1110-1122 (1985).

W. E. Stephens, T. R. Joseph, "System characteristics of direct modulated and externally modulated RF fiber-optic links," J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 380-387 (1997).

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, "Optical single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulator for wide-band signal processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 859-863 (1998).

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, "Design and performance of the bidirectional optical single-sideband modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1071-1082 (2003).

K. Oda, N. Takato, H. Toba, K. Nosu, "A wide-band guided-wave periodic multi/demultiplexer with ring resonator for optical FDM transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1016-1023 (1988).

J. Lighw. Technol (1)

N. A. Riza, M. A. Arain, S. A. Khan, "Hybrid analog-digital variable fiber-optic delay line," J. Lighw. Technol 22, 619-624 (2004).

Nature Photonics (1)

J. Capmany, D. Novak, "Microwave photonics combines two worlds," Nature Photonics 1, 319-330 (2007).

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. P. Goutzoulis, D. K. Davies, J. M. Zomp, "Hybrid electronic fiber optic wavelength-multiplexed system for true time-delay steering of phased array antennas," Opt. Eng. 31, 2312-2322 (1992).

The Microwave Journal (1)

A. Waldman, G. J. Wooley, "Noise temperature of a phased array receiver," The Microwave Journal 89-96 (1966).

Other (17)

E. L. Holzman, "Intercept points of active phased array antenna," IEEE Microwave Theory Tech. Soc. Int. Microwave Symp. (1996) pp. 999-1002.

R. Meijerink, A. Meijerink, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, W. van Etten, "Performance study of a ring resonator-based optical beam forming system for phased array receive antennas," Proc. 14th IEEE/CVT Symp. Benelux (2007).

N. M. Froberg, E. I. Ackerman, C. H. Cox III, "Analysis of signal to noise ratio in photonic beamformers," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf. 2006 (2006).

R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas (Wiley, 1998).

N. A. Riza, Selected Papers on Photonic Control Systems for Phased Array Antennas (SPIE, 1997).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, W. van Etten, "Continuously tunable optical delay line," Proc. 12th IEEE/CVT Symp. Benelux (2005).

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, W. van Etten, "Ring resonator-based tunable optical delay line in LPCVD waveguide technology," Proc. 10th IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux (2005) pp. 79-82.

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP'2006) (2006).

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, W. van Etten, "Phased array antenna steering using a ring resonator-based optical beam forming network," Proc. 13th IEEE/CVT Symp. Benelux (2006) pp. 7-12.

L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, J. Peña Hevilla, W. van Etten, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, "Phased array receive antenna steering system using a ring resonator-based optical beam forming network and filter-based optical SSB-SC modulation," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP'2007) (2007) pp. 88-91.

L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, A. Borreman, A. Leinse, W. van Etten, "Novel ring resonator-based optical beamformer system and experimental results," Proc. 11th IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux (2007) pp. 239-242.

H. Schippers, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, W. van Etten, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, A. Borreman, M. Hoekman, M. Wintels, "Broadband conformal phased array with optical beamforming for airborne satellite communication," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf. 2008 (2008).

H. Schippers, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, W. van Etten, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, M. Wintels, "Broadband optical beam forming for airborne phased array antenna," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf. 2009 (2009).

L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, A. Borreman, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Leinse, W. van Etten, "Experimental prototype of a novel ring resonator-based optical beamformer system," Proc. LEOS Ann. Mtg. 2007 (2007) pp. 112-113.

L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, A. Leinse, W. van Etten, "Broadband phased array antenna steering by means of coherent signal combining in an integrated ring resonator-based optical beamformer," Proc. 13th IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux (2008) pp. 71-74.

L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, A. Leinse, W. van Etten, "Novel ring resonator-based optical beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas," Proc. LEOS Ann. Mtg. 2008 (2008) pp. 20-21.

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