Abstract

An experimental prototype is presented that illustrates the implementation aspects and feasibility of the novel ring resonator-based optical beamformer concept that has been developed and analyzed in Part I of this paper . This concept can be used for seamless control of the reception angle in broadband wireless receivers employing a large phased array antenna (PAA). The design, fabrication, and characterization of a dedicated chip are described, in which an 8$\,\times\,$1 optical beamforming network, an optical sideband filter for single-sideband suppressed carrier modulation, and a carrier re-insertion coupler for balanced optical detection are integrated. The chip was designed for satellite television reception using a broadband PAA, and was realized in a low-loss, CMOS-compatible optical waveguide technology. Tuning is performed thermo-optically, with a switching time of 1 ms. Group delay response and power response measurements show the correct operation of the OBFN and OSBF, respectively. Measurements on a complete beamformer prototype (including the electro-optical and opto-electrical conversions) demonstrate an optical sideband suppression of 25 dB, RF-to-RF delay generation up to 0.63 ns with a phase accuracy better than $\pi/10$ radians, and coherent combining of four RF input signals, all in a frequency range of 1–2 GHz.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. J. Bentum, M. Burla, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, W. van Etten, "Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3-18 (2010).
  2. N. A. Riza, Selected Papers on Photonic Control Systems for Phased Array Antennas (SPIE, 1997).
  3. F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Borreman, "Box-shaped dielectric waveguides: A new concept in integrated optics?," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2579-2589 (2007).
  4. R. G. Heideman, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Leinse, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, W. van Etten, E. J. Klein, A. Driessen, "Low loss, high contrast optical waveguides based on CMOS compatible LPCVD processing," Proc. 13th Europ. Conf. Integr. Opt. (ECIO 2007) (2007).
  5. R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, W. Hoving, R. Dekker, D. H. Geuzebroek, E. J. Klein, R. Stoffer, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, "Large-scale integrated optics using TriPleX™ waveguide technology: From UV to IR," SPIE Photonics West (2009).
  6. C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, W. van Etten, "Ring resonator-based tunable optical delay line in LPCVD waveguide technology," Proc. 10th IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux (2005) pp. 79-82.
  7. L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP'2006) (2006).
  8. L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip ring resonator-based 1$\,\times\,$8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1130-1132 (2007).
  9. L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, A. Borreman, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Leinse, W. van Etten, "Experimental prototype of a novel ring resonator-based optical beamformer system," Proc. LEOS Ann. Mtg. 2007 (2007) pp. 112-113.
  10. L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, J. Peña Hevilla, W. van Etten, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, "Phased array receive antenna steering system using a ring resonator-based optical beam forming network and filter-based optical SSB-SC modulation," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP'2007) (2007) pp. 88-91.
  11. L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, A. Leinse, W. van Etten, "Novel ring resonator-based optical beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas," Proc. LEOS Ann. Mtg. 2008 (2008) pp. 20-21.
  12. H. Schippers, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, W. van Etten, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, A. Borreman, M. Hoekman, M. Wintels, "Broadband conformal phased array with optical beamforming for airborne satellite communication," Proc. IEEE Aerosp. Conf. 2008 (2008).
  13. H. Schippers, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, W. van Etten, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, M. Wintels, "Broadband optical beam forming for airborne phased array antenna," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf. 2009 (2009).
  14. L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, W. van Etten, "Continuously tunable optical delay line," Proc. 12th IEEE/CVT Symp. Benelux (2005).
  15. R. J. Blokpoel, A. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, W. van Etten, "Staggered delay tuning algorithms for ring resonators in optical beam forming networks," Proc. 12th IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux (2007) pp. 243-246.
  16. K. Oda, N. Takato, H. Toba, K. Nosu, "A wideband guided-wave periodic multi/demultiplexer with a ring resonator for optical FDM transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1016-1023 (1988).

2010 (1)

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. J. Bentum, M. Burla, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, W. van Etten, "Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3-18 (2010).

2007 (2)

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Borreman, "Box-shaped dielectric waveguides: A new concept in integrated optics?," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2579-2589 (2007).

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip ring resonator-based 1$\,\times\,$8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1130-1132 (2007).

1988 (1)

K. Oda, N. Takato, H. Toba, K. Nosu, "A wideband guided-wave periodic multi/demultiplexer with a ring resonator for optical FDM transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1016-1023 (1988).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip ring resonator-based 1$\,\times\,$8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1130-1132 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Borreman, "Box-shaped dielectric waveguides: A new concept in integrated optics?," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2579-2589 (2007).

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. J. Bentum, M. Burla, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, W. van Etten, "Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3-18 (2010).

K. Oda, N. Takato, H. Toba, K. Nosu, "A wideband guided-wave periodic multi/demultiplexer with a ring resonator for optical FDM transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1016-1023 (1988).

Other (12)

N. A. Riza, Selected Papers on Photonic Control Systems for Phased Array Antennas (SPIE, 1997).

R. G. Heideman, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Leinse, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, W. van Etten, E. J. Klein, A. Driessen, "Low loss, high contrast optical waveguides based on CMOS compatible LPCVD processing," Proc. 13th Europ. Conf. Integr. Opt. (ECIO 2007) (2007).

R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, W. Hoving, R. Dekker, D. H. Geuzebroek, E. J. Klein, R. Stoffer, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, "Large-scale integrated optics using TriPleX™ waveguide technology: From UV to IR," SPIE Photonics West (2009).

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, W. van Etten, "Ring resonator-based tunable optical delay line in LPCVD waveguide technology," Proc. 10th IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux (2005) pp. 79-82.

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, W. van Etten, "Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP'2006) (2006).

L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, A. Borreman, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Leinse, W. van Etten, "Experimental prototype of a novel ring resonator-based optical beamformer system," Proc. LEOS Ann. Mtg. 2007 (2007) pp. 112-113.

L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, J. Peña Hevilla, W. van Etten, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, "Phased array receive antenna steering system using a ring resonator-based optical beam forming network and filter-based optical SSB-SC modulation," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (MWP'2007) (2007) pp. 88-91.

L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, A. Leinse, W. van Etten, "Novel ring resonator-based optical beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas," Proc. LEOS Ann. Mtg. 2008 (2008) pp. 20-21.

H. Schippers, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, W. van Etten, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, A. Borreman, M. Hoekman, M. Wintels, "Broadband conformal phased array with optical beamforming for airborne satellite communication," Proc. IEEE Aerosp. Conf. 2008 (2008).

H. Schippers, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, L. Zhuang, A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, W. van Etten, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, M. Wintels, "Broadband optical beam forming for airborne phased array antenna," Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf. 2009 (2009).

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, W. van Etten, "Continuously tunable optical delay line," Proc. 12th IEEE/CVT Symp. Benelux (2005).

R. J. Blokpoel, A. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, W. van Etten, "Staggered delay tuning algorithms for ring resonators in optical beam forming networks," Proc. 12th IEEE/LEOS Symp. Benelux (2007) pp. 243-246.

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