Abstract

This paper describes the wide temperature range operation of an electroabsorption modulator (EAM) integrated with DFB laser diodes (LDs) (EML) designed to reduce the power consumption and size of optical transmitters. We optimized the multiquantum wells (MQWs) for LD and EAM separately to realize uncooled operation. We employed a conduction band offset $(\Delta E_{c}$) of around 250 meV for the LD and 150 meV for the EAM. The number of well layers was set at 6 for the LD and 12 for the EAM, respectively. We fabricated the EML using a butt-joint (BJ) process to allow us to design the LD and the EAM independently. We introduced a ridge waveguide structure for the LD and EAM waveguides, and designed the width of the LD and EAM mesa to achieve a high optical coupling efficiency between the LD and the EAM. We then used the 200-$\mu$m-long EAM for 10-Gb/s operation and the 150-$\mu$m-long EAM for 40-Gb/s operation, and thus obtained a dynamic extinction ratio of over 9 dB at 10 Gb/s from ${-}25$$^{\circ}$C to 100 $^{\circ}$C and of 8.2 dB at 40 Gb/s from ${-}15$ to 80$^{\circ}$C. We achieved a power penalty of less than 2 dB after an 80-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission at 10 Gb/s and a 2-km SMF transmission at 40 Gb/s over a wide temperature range. These results confirm the suitability of this EML with a BJ structure for use as a 10-Gb/s or 40-Gb/s uncooled light source.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. Y. Muroya, T. Okuda, R. Kobayashi, K. Tsuruoka, Y. Ohsawa, T. Koui, T. Tsukuda, T. Nakamura, "100$^{\circ}$C, 10-Gb/s direct modulation with a low operation current of 1.3-$\mu$m AlGaInAs buried heterostructure DFB laser diodes," OFC AtlantaGA (2003) Paper FG6.
  2. K. Nakahara, T. Tsuchiya, S. Tanaka, T. Kitatani, K. Shinoda, T. Taniguchi, T. Kikawa, E. Nomoto, S. Fujisaki, M. Kudo, "115$^{\circ}$C, 12.5-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-$\mu$m InGaAlAs MQW RWG DFB laser with notch-free grating structure for datacom applications," OFC AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PD40-1.
  3. K. Takada, M. Matsuda, S. Okumura, M. Ekawa, T. Yamamoto, "Low-drive-current 10-Gb/s operation of AlGaInAs buried-heterostructure $\lambda/4$-shifted DFB lasers," ECOC CannesFrance (2006) Paper Mo.3.4.4.
  4. S. Shirai, Y. Tatsuoka, C. Watatani, T. Ota, K. Takagi, T. Aoyagi, E. Omura, N. Tomita, "120$^{\circ}$C uncooled operation of direct modulated 1.3 $\mu$m AlGaInAs-MQW DFB laser diodes for 10 Gb/s telecom applications," OFC Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper ThD2.
  5. H. Singh, K. Motoda, M. Mukaikubo, K. Okamoto, R. Washino, Y. Sakuma, K. Uchida, H. Yamamoto, K. Uomi, K. Nakahara, M. Aoki, "Wide temperature $({-}20^{\circ}$C ${-}100^{\circ}$C) operation of an uncooled direct-modulation 1.3 $\mu$m InGaAlAs MQW DFB laser for 10.7 Gbit/s SONET applications," OFC AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OThN3.
  6. K. Naoe, N. Sasada, Y. Sakuma, K. Motoda, T. Kato, M. Akashi, J. Shimizu, T. Kitatani, M. Aoki, M. Okayasu, K. Uomi, "43-Gbit/s operation of 1.55-$\mu$m electro-absorption modulator integrated DFB laser modules for 2-km transmission," ECOC GlasgowScotland (2005) Paper Th 2.6.4.
  7. Y. Miyazaki, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsumoto, K. Kuramoto, K. Shibata, T. Aoyagi, T. Ishikawa, "High-power ultralow-chirp 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated laser with ultrashort photocarrier lifetime," J. Quantum Electron. 42, 357-362 (2006).
  8. K. Takada, S. Akiyama, M. Matsuda, S. Okumura, M. Ekawa, T. Yamamoto, "High-power 10-Gb/s semi-cooled operation of AlGaInAs electroabsorption modulator integrated $\lambda/4$-shifted DFB laser," ECOC BerlinGermany (2007) Paper We.8.1.6.
  9. T. Ishikawa, J. E. Bowers, "Band lineup and in-plane effective mass of InGaAsP or InGaAlAs on InP strained-layer quantum well," J. Quantum Electron. 30, 562-570 (1994).
  10. T. Knodl, C. Hanke, B. K. Saravanan, M. Peschke, R. Schreiner, B. Stegmuller, "Integrated 1.3 $\mu$m InGaAlAs-InP laser-modulator with double-stack MQW layer structure," Proc. SPIE 2004 () pp. 1-7.
  11. A. Garreau, M.-C. Cuisin, J.-G. Provost, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, C. Jany, J. Decobert, O. Drisse, F. Blanche, D. Carpentier, E. Derouin, F. Martin, N. Lagay, J. Landreau, C. Kazmierski, "Wide temperature range operation at 43 Gbit/s of 1.55 $\mu$m InGaAlAs electroabsorption modulated laser with single active layer," Proc. IPRM (2007) pp. 358-360.
  12. C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, P. Cai, J. Xu, J. Huang, H. Yuan, Q. Zhou, Y. Luo, "Fabrication and packaging of 40-Gb/s AlGaInAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulated lasers based on identical epitaxial layer scheme," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1464-1471 (2008).
  13. M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Ueng-McHale, J. Thomson, J. Yao, J. van Saders, "Uncooled, 10-Gb/s 1310 nm electroabsorption modulated laser," OFC AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PDP 42.
  14. W. Kobayashis, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "10-Gb/s, 80-km SMF transmission from 0 to 80$^{\circ}$C by using L-band InGaAlAs-MQW electroabsorption modulated laser with twin waveguide structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5084-5089 (2009).
  15. K. Yashiki, T. Kato, H. Chida, K. Tsuruoka, R. Kobayashi, S. Sudo, K. Sato, K. Kudo, "10-Gb/s 23-km penalty-free operation of 1310-nm uncooled EML with semi-insulating BH structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 109-111 (2006).
  16. T. Yamanaka, K. Wakita, K. Yokoyama, "Potential chirp-free characteristics (negative chirp parameter) in electroabsorption modulation using a wide tensile-strained quantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3114-3116 (1996).
  17. M. Matsuda, K. Morito, K. Yamaji, T. Fujii, Y. Kotaki, "A novel method for designing chirp characteristics in electroabsorption MQW optical modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 364-366 (1998).
  18. S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Kitatani, T. Shiota, M. Aoki, N. Sasada, K. Naoe, "Uncooled, electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser," OFC San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OthK6.
  19. S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Kitatani, H. Hayashi, T. Shiota, S. Tanaka, M. Aoki, N. Sasada, K. Naoe, "Progress with the uncooled electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser," Proc. SPIE 2008 () pp. 713505-1-713505-10.
  20. W. Kobayashi, M. Arai, T. Yamanaka, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, M. Ishikawa, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "Wide temperature range (${-}25^{\circ}$C${-}100^{\circ}$C) operation of a 1.55-$\mu$m electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser for 80-km SMF transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1054-1056 (2009).
  21. B. K. Saravanan, T. Wenger, C. Hanke, P. Gerlach, M. Peschke, R. Macaluso, "Wide temperature operation of 40-Gb/s 1550-nm electroabsorption modulated lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 862-864 (2006).
  22. W. Kobayashi, T. Yamanaka, M. Arai, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, K. Tsuzuki, T. Ito, T. Tadokoro, F. Kano, "Wide temperature range operation of a 1.55-$\mu$m 40-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser for very short-reach applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1317-1319 (2009).
  23. M. Sugawara, "Tight-binding model including cation $d$ orbitals to predict valence-band offset in zinc-blende semiconductor heterojunctions," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 47, 7588-7590 (1993).
  24. F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).

2009 (3)

W. Kobayashis, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "10-Gb/s, 80-km SMF transmission from 0 to 80$^{\circ}$C by using L-band InGaAlAs-MQW electroabsorption modulated laser with twin waveguide structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5084-5089 (2009).

W. Kobayashi, M. Arai, T. Yamanaka, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, M. Ishikawa, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "Wide temperature range (${-}25^{\circ}$C${-}100^{\circ}$C) operation of a 1.55-$\mu$m electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser for 80-km SMF transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1054-1056 (2009).

W. Kobayashi, T. Yamanaka, M. Arai, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, K. Tsuzuki, T. Ito, T. Tadokoro, F. Kano, "Wide temperature range operation of a 1.55-$\mu$m 40-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser for very short-reach applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1317-1319 (2009).

2008 (1)

C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, P. Cai, J. Xu, J. Huang, H. Yuan, Q. Zhou, Y. Luo, "Fabrication and packaging of 40-Gb/s AlGaInAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulated lasers based on identical epitaxial layer scheme," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1464-1471 (2008).

2006 (3)

B. K. Saravanan, T. Wenger, C. Hanke, P. Gerlach, M. Peschke, R. Macaluso, "Wide temperature operation of 40-Gb/s 1550-nm electroabsorption modulated lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 862-864 (2006).

K. Yashiki, T. Kato, H. Chida, K. Tsuruoka, R. Kobayashi, S. Sudo, K. Sato, K. Kudo, "10-Gb/s 23-km penalty-free operation of 1310-nm uncooled EML with semi-insulating BH structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 109-111 (2006).

Y. Miyazaki, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsumoto, K. Kuramoto, K. Shibata, T. Aoyagi, T. Ishikawa, "High-power ultralow-chirp 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated laser with ultrashort photocarrier lifetime," J. Quantum Electron. 42, 357-362 (2006).

1998 (1)

M. Matsuda, K. Morito, K. Yamaji, T. Fujii, Y. Kotaki, "A novel method for designing chirp characteristics in electroabsorption MQW optical modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 364-366 (1998).

1996 (1)

T. Yamanaka, K. Wakita, K. Yokoyama, "Potential chirp-free characteristics (negative chirp parameter) in electroabsorption modulation using a wide tensile-strained quantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3114-3116 (1996).

1994 (1)

T. Ishikawa, J. E. Bowers, "Band lineup and in-plane effective mass of InGaAsP or InGaAlAs on InP strained-layer quantum well," J. Quantum Electron. 30, 562-570 (1994).

1993 (2)

M. Sugawara, "Tight-binding model including cation $d$ orbitals to predict valence-band offset in zinc-blende semiconductor heterojunctions," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 47, 7588-7590 (1993).

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Yamanaka, K. Wakita, K. Yokoyama, "Potential chirp-free characteristics (negative chirp parameter) in electroabsorption modulation using a wide tensile-strained quantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3114-3116 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

M. Matsuda, K. Morito, K. Yamaji, T. Fujii, Y. Kotaki, "A novel method for designing chirp characteristics in electroabsorption MQW optical modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 364-366 (1998).

K. Yashiki, T. Kato, H. Chida, K. Tsuruoka, R. Kobayashi, S. Sudo, K. Sato, K. Kudo, "10-Gb/s 23-km penalty-free operation of 1310-nm uncooled EML with semi-insulating BH structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 109-111 (2006).

W. Kobayashi, M. Arai, T. Yamanaka, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, M. Ishikawa, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "Wide temperature range (${-}25^{\circ}$C${-}100^{\circ}$C) operation of a 1.55-$\mu$m electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser for 80-km SMF transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1054-1056 (2009).

B. K. Saravanan, T. Wenger, C. Hanke, P. Gerlach, M. Peschke, R. Macaluso, "Wide temperature operation of 40-Gb/s 1550-nm electroabsorption modulated lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 862-864 (2006).

W. Kobayashi, T. Yamanaka, M. Arai, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, K. Tsuzuki, T. Ito, T. Tadokoro, F. Kano, "Wide temperature range operation of a 1.55-$\mu$m 40-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser for very short-reach applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1317-1319 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).

W. Kobayashis, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, T. Yamanaka, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "10-Gb/s, 80-km SMF transmission from 0 to 80$^{\circ}$C by using L-band InGaAlAs-MQW electroabsorption modulated laser with twin waveguide structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5084-5089 (2009).

C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, P. Cai, J. Xu, J. Huang, H. Yuan, Q. Zhou, Y. Luo, "Fabrication and packaging of 40-Gb/s AlGaInAs multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption modulated lasers based on identical epitaxial layer scheme," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1464-1471 (2008).

J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Miyazaki, T. Yamamoto, K. Matsumoto, K. Kuramoto, K. Shibata, T. Aoyagi, T. Ishikawa, "High-power ultralow-chirp 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated laser with ultrashort photocarrier lifetime," J. Quantum Electron. 42, 357-362 (2006).

T. Ishikawa, J. E. Bowers, "Band lineup and in-plane effective mass of InGaAsP or InGaAlAs on InP strained-layer quantum well," J. Quantum Electron. 30, 562-570 (1994).

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter (1)

M. Sugawara, "Tight-binding model including cation $d$ orbitals to predict valence-band offset in zinc-blende semiconductor heterojunctions," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 47, 7588-7590 (1993).

Other (12)

T. Knodl, C. Hanke, B. K. Saravanan, M. Peschke, R. Schreiner, B. Stegmuller, "Integrated 1.3 $\mu$m InGaAlAs-InP laser-modulator with double-stack MQW layer structure," Proc. SPIE 2004 () pp. 1-7.

A. Garreau, M.-C. Cuisin, J.-G. Provost, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, C. Jany, J. Decobert, O. Drisse, F. Blanche, D. Carpentier, E. Derouin, F. Martin, N. Lagay, J. Landreau, C. Kazmierski, "Wide temperature range operation at 43 Gbit/s of 1.55 $\mu$m InGaAlAs electroabsorption modulated laser with single active layer," Proc. IPRM (2007) pp. 358-360.

K. Takada, S. Akiyama, M. Matsuda, S. Okumura, M. Ekawa, T. Yamamoto, "High-power 10-Gb/s semi-cooled operation of AlGaInAs electroabsorption modulator integrated $\lambda/4$-shifted DFB laser," ECOC BerlinGermany (2007) Paper We.8.1.6.

Y. Muroya, T. Okuda, R. Kobayashi, K. Tsuruoka, Y. Ohsawa, T. Koui, T. Tsukuda, T. Nakamura, "100$^{\circ}$C, 10-Gb/s direct modulation with a low operation current of 1.3-$\mu$m AlGaInAs buried heterostructure DFB laser diodes," OFC AtlantaGA (2003) Paper FG6.

K. Nakahara, T. Tsuchiya, S. Tanaka, T. Kitatani, K. Shinoda, T. Taniguchi, T. Kikawa, E. Nomoto, S. Fujisaki, M. Kudo, "115$^{\circ}$C, 12.5-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-$\mu$m InGaAlAs MQW RWG DFB laser with notch-free grating structure for datacom applications," OFC AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PD40-1.

K. Takada, M. Matsuda, S. Okumura, M. Ekawa, T. Yamamoto, "Low-drive-current 10-Gb/s operation of AlGaInAs buried-heterostructure $\lambda/4$-shifted DFB lasers," ECOC CannesFrance (2006) Paper Mo.3.4.4.

S. Shirai, Y. Tatsuoka, C. Watatani, T. Ota, K. Takagi, T. Aoyagi, E. Omura, N. Tomita, "120$^{\circ}$C uncooled operation of direct modulated 1.3 $\mu$m AlGaInAs-MQW DFB laser diodes for 10 Gb/s telecom applications," OFC Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper ThD2.

H. Singh, K. Motoda, M. Mukaikubo, K. Okamoto, R. Washino, Y. Sakuma, K. Uchida, H. Yamamoto, K. Uomi, K. Nakahara, M. Aoki, "Wide temperature $({-}20^{\circ}$C ${-}100^{\circ}$C) operation of an uncooled direct-modulation 1.3 $\mu$m InGaAlAs MQW DFB laser for 10.7 Gbit/s SONET applications," OFC AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OThN3.

K. Naoe, N. Sasada, Y. Sakuma, K. Motoda, T. Kato, M. Akashi, J. Shimizu, T. Kitatani, M. Aoki, M. Okayasu, K. Uomi, "43-Gbit/s operation of 1.55-$\mu$m electro-absorption modulator integrated DFB laser modules for 2-km transmission," ECOC GlasgowScotland (2005) Paper Th 2.6.4.

M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Ueng-McHale, J. Thomson, J. Yao, J. van Saders, "Uncooled, 10-Gb/s 1310 nm electroabsorption modulated laser," OFC AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PDP 42.

S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Kitatani, T. Shiota, M. Aoki, N. Sasada, K. Naoe, "Uncooled, electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser," OFC San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OthK6.

S. Makino, K. Shinoda, T. Kitatani, H. Hayashi, T. Shiota, S. Tanaka, M. Aoki, N. Sasada, K. Naoe, "Progress with the uncooled electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser," Proc. SPIE 2008 () pp. 713505-1-713505-10.

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