Abstract

A proposal for the realization of highly sensitive optical direct-detection (incoherent) multilevel transmission with arbitrary signal constellation without optical chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation is reviewed in this paper. We introduce transmitter-side signal processing, “CD pre-equalization,” and “phase preintegration” techniques to realize direct-detection CD-compensation free transmission of arbitrary optical quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signals. We also adopt receiver-side signal processing, “multi-symbol phase estimation (MSPE),” and “non-Euclidean metric-based symbol detection” to improve the optical SNR (OSNR) sensitivity. We have performed up to 160-km standard single-mode fiber transmission of a 40-Gbit/s 16QAM signal and achieved the OSNR sensitivities only 0.5–2.4 dB away from those of coherent detection.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).
  2. S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Unrepeated 20-Gbit/s QPSK transmission over 200-km standard single-mode fiber using homodyne detection and digital signal processing for dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWB4.
  3. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. Van Den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "10$\times$Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation," Opt Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOFEC) San DiegoCA (2008) Postdeadline paper PDP22.
  4. M. Serbay, C. Wree, W. Rosenkranz, "Experimental investigation of RZ-8DPSK at 3$\times$10.7Gb/s," 18th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. SydneyAustralia (2005) Paper WE3.
  5. S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Proposal of 8-state per symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) 30-Gbit/s optical modulation/demodulation scheme," 29th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC/IOOC 2003) RiminiItaly () Paper Th2.6.4.
  6. T. Miyazaki, F. Kubota, "Superposition of DQPSK over inverse-RZ for 3-bit/symbol modulationdemodulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2643-2645 (2004).
  7. K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, "Proposal and demonstration of 10-Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation/demodulation scheme," 30th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2004) StockholmSweden () Paper We3.4.5.
  8. M. Serbay, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, W. Rosenkranz, "42.8 Gbit/s, 4 bits per symbol 16-ary inverse-RZ-QASK-DQPSK transmission experiment without polmux," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOFEC 2007) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper OThL2.
  9. N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "First experimental demonstration of single-polarization 50-Gbit/s 32-level (QASK and 8-DPSK) incoherent optical multilevel transmission," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper PDP21.
  10. K. Mandai, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "First long distance (1040-km) WDM transmission of 16-channels 30-Gbit/s (480-Gbit/s) 8-ary differential phase-shift-keying (8-DPSK) signals," 12th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf. 16th Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OECC/IOCC 2007) YokohamaJapan () Postdeadline Paper P1.2.
  11. N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, S. Sasaki, K. Sekine, "Proposal and first experimental demonstration of digital incoherent optical field detector for chromatic dispersion compensation," 32nd Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2006) CannesFrance () Postdeadline Paper Th.4.4.4.
  12. X. Liu, X. Wei, "Electronic dispersion compensation based on optical field reconstruction with orthogonal differential direct-detection and digital signal processing," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper OTuA6.
  13. D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savchenko, C. Li, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120 km RZ-DPSK transmission over G652 fiber at 10 Gb/s with no optical dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2005) Postdeadline paper PDP27.
  14. N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "Incoherent 40-Gbit/s 16QAM and 30-Gbit/s staggered 8APSK (amplitude- and phase-shift keying) signaling with digital phase pre-integration technique," Proc. IEEE LEOS Summer Top. Meeting (2008) pp. 251-252.
  15. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, D. Kilper, L. L. Buhl, J. Centanni, "DSP-enabled compensation of demodulator phase error and sensitivity improvement in direct-detection 40-Gb/s DQPSK," 32nd Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2006) CannesFrance () Postdeadline paper Th4.4.5.
  16. X. Liu, "Generalized data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for improving receiver sensitivity in direct-detection optical M-ary DPSK," Opt. Exp. 15, 2927-2939 (2007).
  17. S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, "LiNbO3 optical single-sideband modulator," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) BaltimoreMD (2000) Postdeadline paper PD16-1.
  18. K. M. Aleong, H. Leib, P. Kabal, "A technique for combining equalization with generalized differential detection," Proc. IEEE Int. Phoenix Conf. Comput. Commun. (1993) pp. 416-422.
  19. N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "Optical dispersion-compensation free incoherent multilevel signal transmission over standard single-mode fiber with digital pre-distortion and phase pre-integration techniques," 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2008) BrusselsBelgium () Paper Tu.1.E.2.
  20. K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer-Verlag, 2005).
  21. N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "Sensitivity improvement of incoherent multilevel (30-Gbit/s 8QAM and 40-Gbit/s 16QAM) signaling with non-Euclidean metric and MSPE (multi symbol phase estimation)," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOFEC 2009) San DiegoCA () Paper OWG1.
  22. R. Freund, D.-D. Gros, M. Seimetz, L. Molle, C. Caspar, "30 Gbit/s RZ-8-PSK transmission over 2800 km standard single mode fibre without inline dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San JoseCA (2008) Paper OMI5.
  23. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, "112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM on a 25-GHz WDM grid," 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2008) BrusselsBelgium (2008) Postdeadline paper Th.3.E.5.
  24. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, "10$\,\times,112$-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 630 km of fiber with 6.2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San JoseCA (2009) Postdeadline paper PDPB8.
  25. R. Freund, M. Seimetz, "Higher order modulation formats using coherent detection and electronic distortion equalisation for application in future backbone networks," Proc. 2008 IEEE LEOS Summer Top. (2008) pp. 253-254.
  26. M. Nazarathy, E. Simony, Y. Yadin, "Analytical evaluation of bit error rates for hard detection of optical differential phase amplitude shift keying (DPASK)," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2248-2260 (2006).
  27. E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3- and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4110-4124 (2005).

2007 (1)

X. Liu, "Generalized data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for improving receiver sensitivity in direct-detection optical M-ary DPSK," Opt. Exp. 15, 2927-2939 (2007).

2006 (1)

M. Nazarathy, E. Simony, Y. Yadin, "Analytical evaluation of bit error rates for hard detection of optical differential phase amplitude shift keying (DPASK)," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2248-2260 (2006).

2005 (1)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3- and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4110-4124 (2005).

2004 (2)

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

T. Miyazaki, F. Kubota, "Superposition of DQPSK over inverse-RZ for 3-bit/symbol modulationdemodulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2643-2645 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Miyazaki, F. Kubota, "Superposition of DQPSK over inverse-RZ for 3-bit/symbol modulationdemodulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2643-2645 (2004).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

M. Nazarathy, E. Simony, Y. Yadin, "Analytical evaluation of bit error rates for hard detection of optical differential phase amplitude shift keying (DPASK)," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2248-2260 (2006).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3- and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4110-4124 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (1)

X. Liu, "Generalized data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for improving receiver sensitivity in direct-detection optical M-ary DPSK," Opt. Exp. 15, 2927-2939 (2007).

Other (22)

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, "LiNbO3 optical single-sideband modulator," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) BaltimoreMD (2000) Postdeadline paper PD16-1.

K. M. Aleong, H. Leib, P. Kabal, "A technique for combining equalization with generalized differential detection," Proc. IEEE Int. Phoenix Conf. Comput. Commun. (1993) pp. 416-422.

N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "Optical dispersion-compensation free incoherent multilevel signal transmission over standard single-mode fiber with digital pre-distortion and phase pre-integration techniques," 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2008) BrusselsBelgium () Paper Tu.1.E.2.

K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "Sensitivity improvement of incoherent multilevel (30-Gbit/s 8QAM and 40-Gbit/s 16QAM) signaling with non-Euclidean metric and MSPE (multi symbol phase estimation)," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOFEC 2009) San DiegoCA () Paper OWG1.

R. Freund, D.-D. Gros, M. Seimetz, L. Molle, C. Caspar, "30 Gbit/s RZ-8-PSK transmission over 2800 km standard single mode fibre without inline dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San JoseCA (2008) Paper OMI5.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, "112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM on a 25-GHz WDM grid," 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2008) BrusselsBelgium (2008) Postdeadline paper Th.3.E.5.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, "10$\,\times,112$-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 630 km of fiber with 6.2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San JoseCA (2009) Postdeadline paper PDPB8.

R. Freund, M. Seimetz, "Higher order modulation formats using coherent detection and electronic distortion equalisation for application in future backbone networks," Proc. 2008 IEEE LEOS Summer Top. (2008) pp. 253-254.

K. Sekine, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, S. Hayase, C. Hasegawa, "Proposal and demonstration of 10-Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation/demodulation scheme," 30th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2004) StockholmSweden () Paper We3.4.5.

M. Serbay, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, W. Rosenkranz, "42.8 Gbit/s, 4 bits per symbol 16-ary inverse-RZ-QASK-DQPSK transmission experiment without polmux," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOFEC 2007) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper OThL2.

N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "First experimental demonstration of single-polarization 50-Gbit/s 32-level (QASK and 8-DPSK) incoherent optical multilevel transmission," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper PDP21.

K. Mandai, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "First long distance (1040-km) WDM transmission of 16-channels 30-Gbit/s (480-Gbit/s) 8-ary differential phase-shift-keying (8-DPSK) signals," 12th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf. 16th Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OECC/IOCC 2007) YokohamaJapan () Postdeadline Paper P1.2.

N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, S. Sasaki, K. Sekine, "Proposal and first experimental demonstration of digital incoherent optical field detector for chromatic dispersion compensation," 32nd Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2006) CannesFrance () Postdeadline Paper Th.4.4.4.

X. Liu, X. Wei, "Electronic dispersion compensation based on optical field reconstruction with orthogonal differential direct-detection and digital signal processing," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper OTuA6.

D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savchenko, C. Li, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120 km RZ-DPSK transmission over G652 fiber at 10 Gb/s with no optical dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2005) Postdeadline paper PDP27.

N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "Incoherent 40-Gbit/s 16QAM and 30-Gbit/s staggered 8APSK (amplitude- and phase-shift keying) signaling with digital phase pre-integration technique," Proc. IEEE LEOS Summer Top. Meeting (2008) pp. 251-252.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, D. Kilper, L. L. Buhl, J. Centanni, "DSP-enabled compensation of demodulator phase error and sensitivity improvement in direct-detection 40-Gb/s DQPSK," 32nd Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2006) CannesFrance () Postdeadline paper Th4.4.5.

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Unrepeated 20-Gbit/s QPSK transmission over 200-km standard single-mode fiber using homodyne detection and digital signal processing for dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWB4.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. Van Den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "10$\times$Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation," Opt Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOFEC) San DiegoCA (2008) Postdeadline paper PDP22.

M. Serbay, C. Wree, W. Rosenkranz, "Experimental investigation of RZ-8DPSK at 3$\times$10.7Gb/s," 18th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. SydneyAustralia (2005) Paper WE3.

S. Hayase, N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Proposal of 8-state per symbol (binary ASK and QPSK) 30-Gbit/s optical modulation/demodulation scheme," 29th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC/IOOC 2003) RiminiItaly () Paper Th2.6.4.

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