Abstract

A photonic true-time delay beamforming system for phased array antennas based on superstructured fiber Bragg gratings (SFBGs) with linearly increasing equivalent chirps is proposed and demonstrated. The theory behind SFBGs with equivalent chirps is detailed and a closed-form equation for the equivalent dispersion is presented for the first time. Array factors, calculated based on the experimentally measured time delays are shown for different wavelengths of the photonic beamformer. An analysis of the errors present in the group delay responses of the fabricated SFBGs is also presented.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, M. Tur, "Implementation of photonic true time delay using high-order-mode dispersion compensating fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1367-1369 (2004).
  2. D. Dolfi, D. Mongardien, S. Tonda, M. Schaller, J. Chazelas, "Photonics for airborne phased array radars," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Phased Array Syst. Technol. (2000) pp. 379-382.
  3. R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, "Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1513-1517 (1997).
  4. L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, "The use of optically coherent detection techniques for true-time delay phased array and systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1663-1678 (1995).
  5. Y. Chen, R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).
  6. D. N. McQuiddy, Jr.R. L. Gassner, P. Hull, J. S. Mason, J. M. Bedinger, "Transmit/receive module technology for X-band active array radar," Proc. IEEE 79, 308-341 (1991).
  7. R. Rotman, O. Raz, M. Tur, "Requirements for true time delay imaging systems with photonic components," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Phased Array Syst. Technol. (2003) pp. 193-198.
  8. P. M. Freitag, S. R. Forrest, "A coherent optically controlled phased array antenna system," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 3, 293-295 (1993).
  9. W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, "The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1124-1131 (1991).
  10. I. Y. Lee, K. H. Lee, D. Y. Kim, Y. Y. Kim, J. H. Yea, "A novel compact multi line phase shifter for precise array antenna beam control," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. (2004) pp. 1773-1776.
  11. R. S. Chu, K. M. Lee, A. T. S. Wang, "Multiband phased-array antenna with interleaved tapered-elements and waveguide radiators," Proc. Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp. (1996) pp. 1616-1619.
  12. S. Tang, R. T. Chen, B. Li, J. Foshee, "Waveguides take to the sky," IEEE Circuits Dev. Mag. 16, 10-16 (2000).
  13. H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, "Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241-243 (1997).
  14. O. Raz, S. Barzilay, R. Rotman, M. Tur, "Fast switching and wideband photonic beamformer with flat RF response and squintless scan performance," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2007).
  15. D. B. Hunter, M. E. Parker, J. L. Dexter, "Demonstration of a continuously variable true-time delay beamformer using a multichannel chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 861-867 (2006).
  16. I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
  17. Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. P. Yao, "Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172-1174 (2002).
  18. M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, Fiber Optics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 2002).
  19. Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, "Wideband true time-delay beamformer employing a tunable chirped fiber grating prism," Appl. Opt. 42, 2273-2277 (2003).
  20. Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, J. Yang, "Wideband true-time-delay unit for phased array beamforming using discrete-chirped fiber grating prism," Opt. Commun. 207, 177-187 (2002).
  21. X.-F. Chen, X.-H. Li, L. Xia, S.-Z. Xie, C.-C. Fan, J.-P. Want, "Experimental investigation of a sampled grating with a chirp in the sampling period," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 29, 128-130 (2001).
  22. X.-F. Chen, Y. Luo, C.-C. Fan, T. Wu, S.-Z. Xie, "Analytical expression of samples Bragg gratings with chirp in the sampling period and its application in dispersion management design in a WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1013-1015 (2000).
  23. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

2006 (1)

D. B. Hunter, M. E. Parker, J. L. Dexter, "Demonstration of a continuously variable true-time delay beamformer using a multichannel chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 861-867 (2006).

2004 (1)

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, M. Tur, "Implementation of photonic true time delay using high-order-mode dispersion compensating fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1367-1369 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, "Wideband true time-delay beamformer employing a tunable chirped fiber grating prism," Appl. Opt. 42, 2273-2277 (2003).

2002 (3)

Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, J. Yang, "Wideband true-time-delay unit for phased array beamforming using discrete-chirped fiber grating prism," Opt. Commun. 207, 177-187 (2002).

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. P. Yao, "Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172-1174 (2002).

Y. Chen, R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).

2001 (1)

X.-F. Chen, X.-H. Li, L. Xia, S.-Z. Xie, C.-C. Fan, J.-P. Want, "Experimental investigation of a sampled grating with a chirp in the sampling period," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 29, 128-130 (2001).

2000 (2)

X.-F. Chen, Y. Luo, C.-C. Fan, T. Wu, S.-Z. Xie, "Analytical expression of samples Bragg gratings with chirp in the sampling period and its application in dispersion management design in a WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1013-1015 (2000).

S. Tang, R. T. Chen, B. Li, J. Foshee, "Waveguides take to the sky," IEEE Circuits Dev. Mag. 16, 10-16 (2000).

1997 (3)

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, "Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241-243 (1997).

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, "Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1513-1517 (1997).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

1995 (2)

I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, "The use of optically coherent detection techniques for true-time delay phased array and systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1663-1678 (1995).

1993 (1)

P. M. Freitag, S. R. Forrest, "A coherent optically controlled phased array antenna system," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 3, 293-295 (1993).

1991 (2)

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, "The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1124-1131 (1991).

D. N. McQuiddy, Jr.R. L. Gassner, P. Hull, J. S. Mason, J. M. Bedinger, "Transmit/receive module technology for X-band active array radar," Proc. IEEE 79, 308-341 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, "Wideband true time-delay beamformer employing a tunable chirped fiber grating prism," Appl. Opt. 42, 2273-2277 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, "Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1513-1517 (1997).

IEEE Circuits Dev. Mag. (1)

S. Tang, R. T. Chen, B. Li, J. Foshee, "Waveguides take to the sky," IEEE Circuits Dev. Mag. 16, 10-16 (2000).

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. (1)

P. M. Freitag, S. R. Forrest, "A coherent optically controlled phased array antenna system," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 3, 293-295 (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, M. Tur, "Implementation of photonic true time delay using high-order-mode dispersion compensating fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1367-1369 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, "Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241-243 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Chen, R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. P. Yao, "Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172-1174 (2002).

X.-F. Chen, Y. Luo, C.-C. Fan, T. Wu, S.-Z. Xie, "Analytical expression of samples Bragg gratings with chirp in the sampling period and its application in dispersion management design in a WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1013-1015 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

D. B. Hunter, M. E. Parker, J. L. Dexter, "Demonstration of a continuously variable true-time delay beamformer using a multichannel chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 861-867 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, "The use of optically coherent detection techniques for true-time delay phased array and systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1663-1678 (1995).

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, "The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1124-1131 (1991).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

X.-F. Chen, X.-H. Li, L. Xia, S.-Z. Xie, C.-C. Fan, J.-P. Want, "Experimental investigation of a sampled grating with a chirp in the sampling period," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 29, 128-130 (2001).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, J. Yang, "Wideband true-time-delay unit for phased array beamforming using discrete-chirped fiber grating prism," Opt. Commun. 207, 177-187 (2002).

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. N. McQuiddy, Jr.R. L. Gassner, P. Hull, J. S. Mason, J. M. Bedinger, "Transmit/receive module technology for X-band active array radar," Proc. IEEE 79, 308-341 (1991).

Other (6)

R. Rotman, O. Raz, M. Tur, "Requirements for true time delay imaging systems with photonic components," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Phased Array Syst. Technol. (2003) pp. 193-198.

O. Raz, S. Barzilay, R. Rotman, M. Tur, "Fast switching and wideband photonic beamformer with flat RF response and squintless scan performance," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2007).

M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, Fiber Optics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

I. Y. Lee, K. H. Lee, D. Y. Kim, Y. Y. Kim, J. H. Yea, "A novel compact multi line phase shifter for precise array antenna beam control," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. (2004) pp. 1773-1776.

R. S. Chu, K. M. Lee, A. T. S. Wang, "Multiband phased-array antenna with interleaved tapered-elements and waveguide radiators," Proc. Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp. (1996) pp. 1616-1619.

D. Dolfi, D. Mongardien, S. Tonda, M. Schaller, J. Chazelas, "Photonics for airborne phased array radars," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Phased Array Syst. Technol. (2000) pp. 379-382.

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