Abstract

Femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass were characterized across the full telecom spectrum to gain insight into waveguide loss mechanisms, and to aid in the design of a low-loss 1300/1550 nm wavelength demultiplexer. A $\lambda^{-4}$ wavelength scaling of propagation loss confirms Rayleigh scattering as a principal loss mechanism. Laser exposure was optimized for generating low-loss directional couplers with high isolation between the 1300 and 1550 nm bands. Dispersive coupling in the straight and curved wavelength regions was balanced with a 1.5-fold difference in 1300 and 1550 nm beat lengths, leading to the first demonstration of 1300/1550 nm demultiplexer written with a laser. A minimum interaction length of 3.2 mm, ${\sim} {\hbox {2}}$ dB insertion loss and channel isolations of 16.7 and 18.8 dB are reported.

© 2009 IEEE

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2008 (4)

R. R. Gattass, E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photon. 2, 219-225 (2008).

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W. Chen, S. Ho, P. R. Herman, "Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 9443-9458 (2008).

W.-J. Chen, S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, "Broadband directional couplers fabricated in bulk glass with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 16, 11470-11480 (2008).

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nat. Photon. 2, 99-104 (2008).

2007 (5)

P. G. Kazansky, W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, "“Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007).

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, A. Fender, S. Campbell, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, D. T. Reid, A. K. Kar, "Ultrafast-laser inscription of a three dimensional fan-out device for multicore fiber coupling applications," Opt. Exp. 15, 11691-11697 (2007).

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Osellame, A. Festa, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, "1.5 micron single longitudinal mode waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Exp. 15, 3190-3194 (2007).

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 1579-1587 (2007).

K. Tsujikawa, K. Tajima, K. Shiraki, I. Sankawa, "Method for predicting rayleigh scattering loss of silica-based optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2122-2128 (2007).

2006 (7)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, I. Maxwell, J. B. Ashcom, E. Mazur, "Optical loss measurements in femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass," Opt. Commun. 259, 626-630 (2006).

M. Olivero, M. Svalgaard, "Fabrication of 2$\,\times\,$8 power splitters in silica-on-silicon by the direct UV writing technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 802-804 (2006).

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).

K. Suzuki, V. Sharma, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, "Characterization of symmetric [3$\,\times\,$3] directional couplers fabricated by direct writing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Exp. 14, 2335-2343 (2006).

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, C. B. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bulletin 31, 620-625 (2006).

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, "Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides," Opt. Exp. 14, 13158-13163 (2006).

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, P. R. Herman, "Femtosecond laser direct writing of multiwavelength Bragg grating waveguides in glass," Opt. Lett. 31, 3495-3497 (2006).

2005 (3)

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Exp. 13, 4708-4716 (2005).

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, "Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121102-121103 (2005).

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, Y. Hibino, "Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).

2003 (2)

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).

Y. Hibino, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits and their applications," MRS Bulletin 28, 365-371 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. Minoshima, A. Kowalevicz, E. Ippen, J. Fujimoto, "Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing," Opt. Exp. 10, 645-652 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, D. M. Krol, "Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).

1998 (1)

R. D. Feldman, E. E. Harstead, S. Jiang, T. H. Wood, M. Zirngibl, "An evaluation of architectures incorporating wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1546-1559 (1998).

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Wavelength characteristics of (2$\,\times\,$2) optical channel-type directional couplers with symmetric or nonsymmetric coupling structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 735-746 (1992).

1991 (1)

H. C. Cheng, R. V. Ramaswamy, "Symmetrical directional coupler as a wavelength multiplexer-demultiplexer: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 567-574 (1991).

1987 (1)

1977 (1)

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, "Low-loss access coupler for multimode optical fiber distribution networks," Appl. Opt. 16, 1794-1795 (1977).

Appl. Opt. (1)

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, "Low-loss access coupler for multimode optical fiber distribution networks," Appl. Opt. 16, 1794-1795 (1977).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, "Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121102-121103 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. G. Kazansky, W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, "“Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. C. Cheng, R. V. Ramaswamy, "Symmetrical directional coupler as a wavelength multiplexer-demultiplexer: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 567-574 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Olivero, M. Svalgaard, "Fabrication of 2$\,\times\,$8 power splitters in silica-on-silicon by the direct UV writing technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 802-804 (2006).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. Tsujikawa, K. Tajima, K. Shiraki, I. Sankawa, "Method for predicting rayleigh scattering loss of silica-based optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2122-2128 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. D. Feldman, E. E. Harstead, S. Jiang, T. H. Wood, M. Zirngibl, "An evaluation of architectures incorporating wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1546-1559 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Wavelength characteristics of (2$\,\times\,$2) optical channel-type directional couplers with symmetric or nonsymmetric coupling structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 735-746 (1992).

MRS Bulletin (2)

Y. Hibino, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits and their applications," MRS Bulletin 28, 365-371 (2003).

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, C. B. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bulletin 31, 620-625 (2006).

Nat. Photon. (2)

R. R. Gattass, E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photon. 2, 219-225 (2008).

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nat. Photon. 2, 99-104 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (2)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, "Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides," Opt. Exp. 14, 13158-13163 (2006).

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Osellame, A. Festa, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, "1.5 micron single longitudinal mode waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Exp. 15, 3190-3194 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (2)

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, D. M. Krol, "Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, I. Maxwell, J. B. Ashcom, E. Mazur, "Optical loss measurements in femtosecond laser written waveguides in glass," Opt. Commun. 259, 626-630 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (7)

K. Suzuki, V. Sharma, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, "Characterization of symmetric [3$\,\times\,$3] directional couplers fabricated by direct writing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Exp. 14, 2335-2343 (2006).

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, A. Fender, S. Campbell, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, D. T. Reid, A. K. Kar, "Ultrafast-laser inscription of a three dimensional fan-out device for multicore fiber coupling applications," Opt. Exp. 15, 11691-11697 (2007).

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Exp. 13, 4708-4716 (2005).

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 1579-1587 (2007).

K. Minoshima, A. Kowalevicz, E. Ippen, J. Fujimoto, "Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing," Opt. Exp. 10, 645-652 (2002).

W.-J. Chen, S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, "Broadband directional couplers fabricated in bulk glass with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 16, 11470-11480 (2008).

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W. Chen, S. Ho, P. R. Herman, "Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 9443-9458 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (5)

S. M. Eaton, Contrasts in thermal diffusion and heat accumulation effects in the fabrication of waveguides in glasses using variable repetition rate femtosecond laser Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Elec. Comp. Eng. Univ. TorontoTorontoONCanada http://hdl.handle.net/1807/11200.

Corning EAGLE2000 AMLCD Glass Substrates Material Information, Corning, NY (2007).

Corning SMF-28e Optical Fiber Product Information, Corning, NY (2004).

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, Silica-Based Buried Channel Waveguides and Devices (Chapman and Hall, 1996).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communication systems (Wiley, 1997).

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