Abstract

This paper presents a novel digital feedforward carrier recovery algorithm for arbitrary $M$-ary quadrature amplitude modulation ($M$-QAM) constellations in an intradyne coherent optical receiver. The approach does not contain any feedback loop and is therefore highly tolerant against laser phase noise. This is crucial, especially for higher order QAM constellations, which inherently have a smaller phase noise tolerance due to the lower spacing between adjacent constellation points. In addition to the mathematical description of the proposed carrier recovery algorithm also a possible hardware-efficient implementation in a parallelized system is presented and the performance of the algorithm is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations for square 4-QAM (QPSK), 16-QAM, 64-QAM, and 256-QAM. For the simulations ASE noise and laser phase noise are considered as well as analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and internal resolution effects. For a 1 dB penalty at ${\rm BER} = 10^{- 3}$, linewidth times symbol duration products of $4.1\times 10^{- 4}$ (4-QAM), $1.4\times 10^{- 4}$ (16-QAM), $4.0\times 10^{- 5}$ (64-QAM) and $8.0\times 10^{- 6}$ (256-QAM) are tolerable.

© 2009 IEEE

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  5. L. Nelson, S. Woodward, M. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O'Sullivan, "Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver in a high-PMD fiber transmission experiment," Proc. OFC/NFOEC'08 (2008).
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2008 (3)

E. Ip, A. Lau, D. Barros, J. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

O. Adamczyk, R. Noé, "13 Gsamples/s 5-bit analogue-to-digital converter for coherent optical QPSK receiver," Electron. Lett. 44, 895-896 (2008).

H. Sun, K. Wu, K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Exp. 16, 873-879 (2008).

2007 (2)

T. Pfau, R. Peveling, J. Hauden, N. Grossard, H. Porte, Y. Achiam, S. Hoffmann, S. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, M. Porrmann, R. Noé, "Coherent digital polarization diversity receiver for real-time polarization-multiplexed QPSK transmission at 2.8 Gbit/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1988-1990 (2007).

E. Ip, J. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. Tarighat, R. Hsu, A. Sayed, B. Jalali, "Digital adaptive phase noise reduction in coherent optical links," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1269-1276 (2006).

2005 (3)

R. Noé, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).

R. Noé, "Phase noise tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).

H. Nosaka, M. Nakamura, K. Sano, M. Ida, K. Kurishima, T. Shibata, M. Tokumitsu, M. Muraguchi, "A 24-Gsps 3-bit nyquist ADC using InP HBTs for DSP-based electronic dispersion compensation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1125-1232 (2005).

1985 (1)

S. Tretter, "Estimating the frequency of a noisy sinusoid by linear regression," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 31, 832-835 (1985).

1978 (1)

W. Weber, "Differential encoding for multiple amplitude and phase shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 385-391 (1978).

1971 (1)

E. Cacciamani, C. Wolejsza, "Phase-ambiguity resolution in a four-phase PSK communications system," IEEE Trans. Commun. Techn. 19, 1200-1210 (1971).

1959 (1)

J. Volder, "The CORDIC trigonometric computing technique," IRE Trans. on Electron. Comp. EC-8, 330-334 (1959).

Atmel Appl. (1)

F. Boré, S. Bruel, M. Wingender, "A 10-bit 2.2 Gsps ADC operating over first and second nyquist zones," Atmel Appl. 43-48 Winter 2006.

Electron. Lett. (1)

O. Adamczyk, R. Noé, "13 Gsamples/s 5-bit analogue-to-digital converter for coherent optical QPSK receiver," Electron. Lett. 44, 895-896 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

W. Weber, "Differential encoding for multiple amplitude and phase shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 385-391 (1978).

IEEE Trans. Commun. Techn. (1)

E. Cacciamani, C. Wolejsza, "Phase-ambiguity resolution in a four-phase PSK communications system," IEEE Trans. Commun. Techn. 19, 1200-1210 (1971).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

S. Tretter, "Estimating the frequency of a noisy sinusoid by linear regression," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 31, 832-835 (1985).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Noé, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).

T. Pfau, R. Peveling, J. Hauden, N. Grossard, H. Porte, Y. Achiam, S. Hoffmann, S. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, M. Porrmann, R. Noé, "Coherent digital polarization diversity receiver for real-time polarization-multiplexed QPSK transmission at 2.8 Gbit/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1988-1990 (2007).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

H. Nosaka, M. Nakamura, K. Sano, M. Ida, K. Kurishima, T. Shibata, M. Tokumitsu, M. Muraguchi, "A 24-Gsps 3-bit nyquist ADC using InP HBTs for DSP-based electronic dispersion compensation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1125-1232 (2005).

IRE Trans. on Electron. Comp. (1)

J. Volder, "The CORDIC trigonometric computing technique," IRE Trans. on Electron. Comp. EC-8, 330-334 (1959).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

R. Noé, "Phase noise tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).

A. Tarighat, R. Hsu, A. Sayed, B. Jalali, "Digital adaptive phase noise reduction in coherent optical links," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1269-1276 (2006).

E. Ip, J. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (2)

E. Ip, A. Lau, D. Barros, J. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

H. Sun, K. Wu, K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Exp. 16, 873-879 (2008).

Other (18)

H. Cramér, Mathematical Methods of Statistics (Princeton University Press, 1999).

Sabeus Precision Advantage™ AG-1 Source Laser Datasheet (Sabeus Inc., 2006).

K. Poulton, R. Neff, B. Setterberg, B. Wuppermann, T. Kopley, R. Jewett, J. Pernillo, C. Tan, A. Montijo, "A 20 GS/s 8b ADC with a 1 MB memory in 0.18 $\mu$m CMOS," Proc. ISSCC'03 (2003).

B. Chan, B. Oyama, C. Monier, A. Gutierrez, "An ultra-wideband 7-bit 5 Gsps ADC implemented in submicron InP HBT technology," Proc. CSIC'07 (2007).

T. Ellermeyer, J. Mullrich, J. Rupeter, H. Langenhagen, A. Bielik, "DA and AD converters for 25 GS/s and above," Proc. SUM'08 (2008).

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J. Dupuy, S. Bigo, "Transmission of 16.4 Tbit/s capacity over 2 550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and coherent receiver," Proc. OFC/NFOEC'08 (2008).

W. Webb, L. Hanzo, Modern Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Pentech Press, 1994).

K. Kikuchi, "Polarization-demultiplexing algorithm in the digital coherent receiver," Proc. SUM'08 (2008).

J. Walther, "A unified algorithm for elementary functions," Proc. Spring Joint Comp. Conf. (1971) pp. 379-385.

H. Louchet, K. Kuzmin, A. Richter, "Improved DSP algorithms for coherent 16-QAM transmission," Proc. ECOC'08 (2008).

M. Seimetz, "Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high-order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC'08 (2008).

U.-V. Koc, "PLL-free quadrature-amplitude modulation in coherent optical communication," Proc. ISCAS'07 (2007) pp. 2299-2302.

F. Munier, E. Alpman, T. Eriksson, A. Svensson, H. Zirath, "Estimation of phase noise for QPSK modulation over AWGN channels," Proc. GigaHertz 2003 Symp. (2003).

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, Y. Chen, "Real-time CMA-based 10 Gb/s polarization demultiplexing coherent receiver implemented in an FPGA," Proc. OFC/NFOEC'08 (2008).

L. Nelson, S. Woodward, M. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O'Sullivan, "Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver in a high-PMD fiber transmission experiment," Proc. OFC/NFOEC'08 (2008).

T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, T. Kawanishi, "50-Gb/s 16 QAM by a quad-parallel mach-zehnder modulator," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007).

C. Doerr, P. Winzer, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, N. Sauer, "Monolithic InP 16-QAM modulator," Proc. OFC/NFOEC'08 (2008).

H. Goto, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, "Polarization-multiplexed 1 Gsymbol/s, 128 QAM (14 Gbit/s) coherent optical transmission over 160 km using a 1.4 GHz nyquist filter," Proc. OFC/NFOEC'08 (2008).

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