Abstract

Free-space optical communications (FSO) propagated over a clear atmosphere suffers from irradiance fluctuation caused by small but random atmospheric temperature fluctuations. This results in decreased signal-to-noise ratio (${\hbox {SNR}}$) and consequently impaired performance. In this paper, the error performance of the FSO using a subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) based on a binary phase shift keying (BPSK) scheme in a clear but turbulent atmosphere is presented. To evaluate the system error performance in turbulence regimes from weak to strong, the probability density function (pdf) of the received irradiance after traversing the atmosphere is modelled using the gamma-gamma distribution while the negative exponential distribution is used to model turbulence in the saturation region and beyond. The effect of turbulence induced irradiance fluctuation is mitigated using spatial diversity at the receiver. With reference to the single photodetector case, up to 12 dB gain in the electrical SNR is predicted with two direct detection PIN photodetectors in strong atmospheric turbulence.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. H. Willebrand, B. S. Ghuman, Free Space Optics: Enabling Optical Connectivity in Today's Network (SAMS, 2002).
  2. D. Killinger, "Free space optics for laser communication through the air," Opt. Photon. News 13, 36-42 (2002).
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2007 (2)

A. Garcia-Zambrana, "Error rate performance for STBC in free-space optical communications through strong atmospheric turbulence," IEEE Commun. Lett. 11, 390-392 (2007).

J. Li, J. Q. Liu, D. P. Taylor, "Optical communication using subcarrier PSK intensity modulation through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, 1598-1606 (2007).

2006 (3)

T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, S. S. Muhammad, E. Leitgeb, "Estimation of the power scintillation probability density function in free-space optical links by use of multicanonical Monte Carlo sampling," Opt. Lett. 31, 3077-3079 (2006).

V. W. S. Chan, "Free-space optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4750-4762 (2006).

M. Uysal, L. Jing, Y. Meng, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 1229-1233 (2006).

2005 (2)

K. Wakafuji, T. Ohtsuki, "Performance analysis of atmospheric optical subcarrier-multiplexing systems and atmospheric optical subcarrier-Modulated code-division multiplexing systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1676-1682 (2005).

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1412 (2005).

2004 (1)

E. J. Lee, V. W. S. Chan, "Optical communications over the clear turbulent channel using diversity," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).

2003 (1)

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1233-1239 (2003).

2002 (2)

D. Killinger, "Free space optics for laser communication through the air," Opt. Photon. News 13, 36-42 (2002).

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

2001 (1)

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

E. J. Lee, V. W. S. Chan, "Optical communications over the clear turbulent channel using diversity," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

A. Garcia-Zambrana, "Error rate performance for STBC in free-space optical communications through strong atmospheric turbulence," IEEE Commun. Lett. 11, 390-392 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (3)

J. Li, J. Q. Liu, D. P. Taylor, "Optical communication using subcarrier PSK intensity modulation through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, 1598-1606 (2007).

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1233-1239 (2003).

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. H. Leveque, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1412 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

M. Uysal, L. Jing, Y. Meng, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 1229-1233 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. Wakafuji, T. Ohtsuki, "Performance analysis of atmospheric optical subcarrier-multiplexing systems and atmospheric optical subcarrier-Modulated code-division multiplexing systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1676-1682 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

V. W. S. Chan, "Free-space optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4750-4762 (2006).

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

D. Killinger, "Free space optics for laser communication through the air," Opt. Photon. News 13, 36-42 (2002).

Other (12)

I. I. Kim, B. McArthur, E. Korevaar, "Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications," Proc. SPIE Opt. Wireless Commun. III (2001) pp. 26-37.

G. R. Osche, Optical Detection Theory for Laser Applications (Wiley, 2002).

W. Huang, J. Takayanagi, T. Sakanaka, M. Nakagawa, "Atmospheric optical communication system using subcarrier PSK modulation," Proc. IEEE ICC (1993) pp. 1597-1601.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE, 2001).

S. Karp, R. M. Gagliardi, S. E. Moran, L. B. Stotts, Optical Channels: Fibers, Cluds, Water and the Atmosphere (Plenum Press, 1988).

G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, Second Edition: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).

H. Willebrand, B. S. Ghuman, Free Space Optics: Enabling Optical Connectivity in Today's Network (SAMS, 2002).

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, "Free-space optical communication in atmospheric turbulence using DPSK subcarrier modulation," 9th ISCTA Ambleside, Lake DistrictU.K. (2007).

W. O. Popoola, Z. Ghassemlooy, E. Leitgeb, "Free-space optical communication using subcarrier modulation in gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence," Proc. 9th ICTON (2007) pp. 156-160.

I. S. Gradshteyn, I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, 1994).

M. K. Simon, M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communication Over Fading Channels (Wiley, 2004).

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