Abstract

This paper explains the principles behind multiwavelength operation of an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) under the combined effect of cavity phase modulation and periodic wavelength filtering. A mathematical model is developed to simulate the behaviour of the multiwavelength EDFL, both in time and frequency domains. The effects of various parameters such as pump power, filter channel spacing, modulation index and frequency are observed and explained. An all-fiber EDFL was constructed, using a piezo-transducer-based phase modulator and a Sagnac loop periodic filter, to validate the theoretical results. The effects of pump power, modulation frequency and modulation index were monitored experimentally, justifying the theoretical explanation. The multiwavelength EDFL has several potential applications in fiber sensing due to its flexible all-fiber design.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, "24-Line multiwavelength Operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1459-1461 (1996).
  2. S. Yamashita, K. Hotate, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using intracavity etalon and cooled by liquid nitrogen," Electron. Lett. 32, 1298-1299 (1996).
  3. J. Chow, G. Town, B. Eggleton, M. Ibsen, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, "Multiwavelength generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser using in-fiber comb filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 60-62 (1996).
  4. O. Graydon, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, L. Dong, "Triple-frequency operation of an er-doped twincore fiber loop laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 63-65 (1996).
  5. D. R. Chen, Z. W. Yu, S. Qin, S. L. He, "Switchable dual-wavelength raman erbium-doped fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 42, 202-204 (2006).
  6. M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. M. Adikan, A. W. Naji, M. K. Abdullah, M. A. Mahdi, "Multiwavelength fabry-perot brillouin-erbium fiber laser," Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 117, 128-130 (2006).
  7. Y. J. Song, L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, Y. Su, Q. H. Ye, Y. X. Xia, "Self-seeded multiwavelength brillouin-erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 486-488 (2005).
  8. Y. G. Han, G. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, "Lasing wavelength and switchable multiwavelength fiber laser from 1510 to 1620 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 989-991 (2005).
  9. X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled bragg grating and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).
  10. A. Zhang, H. Liu, M. S. Demokan, H. Y. Tam, "Stable and broad bandwidth multiwavelength fiber ring laser incorporating a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2535-2537 (2005).
  11. A. Bellemare, M. Karasek, M. Rochette, S. Larochelle, M. Tetu, "Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 825-831 (2000).
  12. J. Yao, J. Yao, Z. Deng, J. Liu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser incorporating an SOA-based phase modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 756-758 (2005).
  13. F. Ahmed, N. Kishi, T. Miki, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber fabry-perot laser and its uniform spectral lines power operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 753-755 (2005).
  14. K. Zhou, D. Zhou, F. Dong, N. Q. Ngo, "Room-temperature multiwavelength erbium doped fiber ring laser employing sinusoidal phase-modulation feedback," Opt. Lett. 28, 893-895 (2003).
  15. M. A. Mirza, G. Stewart, "Design of a multiwavelength fiber laser using an intra-cavity phase modulator and Sagnac loop filter for sensor applications," Proc. SPIE, 3rd Eur. Workshop Optical Fiber Sens. (2007) pp. K1-K4.
  16. Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, "Average inversion level, modelling and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).
  17. D. B. Mortimore, "Fiber loop reflectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1217-1224 (1988).
  18. G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Vijayraghavan, S. Sridaran, "Investigation of the dynamic response of Erbium fiber lasers with potential application for sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1786-1796 (2007).
  19. Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, 2001).
  20. A. E. Siegman, Lasers. (University Science Books, 1986) pp. 502–503, 980-982.
  21. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, R. J. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers. (Academic, 1999) pp. 147-157.
  22. C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
  23. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber Grating Sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  24. G. Stewart, P. Shields, B. Culshaw, "Development of fiber laser systems for ring-down and intra-cavity gas spectroscopy in the near-IR," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1621-1628 (2004).

2007 (1)

G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Vijayraghavan, S. Sridaran, "Investigation of the dynamic response of Erbium fiber lasers with potential application for sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1786-1796 (2007).

2006 (2)

D. R. Chen, Z. W. Yu, S. Qin, S. L. He, "Switchable dual-wavelength raman erbium-doped fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 42, 202-204 (2006).

M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. M. Adikan, A. W. Naji, M. K. Abdullah, M. A. Mahdi, "Multiwavelength fabry-perot brillouin-erbium fiber laser," Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 117, 128-130 (2006).

2005 (6)

Y. J. Song, L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, Y. Su, Q. H. Ye, Y. X. Xia, "Self-seeded multiwavelength brillouin-erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 486-488 (2005).

Y. G. Han, G. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, "Lasing wavelength and switchable multiwavelength fiber laser from 1510 to 1620 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 989-991 (2005).

X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled bragg grating and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).

A. Zhang, H. Liu, M. S. Demokan, H. Y. Tam, "Stable and broad bandwidth multiwavelength fiber ring laser incorporating a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2535-2537 (2005).

J. Yao, J. Yao, Z. Deng, J. Liu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser incorporating an SOA-based phase modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 756-758 (2005).

F. Ahmed, N. Kishi, T. Miki, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber fabry-perot laser and its uniform spectral lines power operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 753-755 (2005).

2004 (1)

G. Stewart, P. Shields, B. Culshaw, "Development of fiber laser systems for ring-down and intra-cavity gas spectroscopy in the near-IR," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1621-1628 (2004).

2003 (1)

K. Zhou, D. Zhou, F. Dong, N. Q. Ngo, "Room-temperature multiwavelength erbium doped fiber ring laser employing sinusoidal phase-modulation feedback," Opt. Lett. 28, 893-895 (2003).

2000 (1)

A. Bellemare, M. Karasek, M. Rochette, S. Larochelle, M. Tetu, "Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 825-831 (2000).

1997 (2)

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, "Average inversion level, modelling and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber Grating Sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

1996 (4)

N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, "24-Line multiwavelength Operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1459-1461 (1996).

S. Yamashita, K. Hotate, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using intracavity etalon and cooled by liquid nitrogen," Electron. Lett. 32, 1298-1299 (1996).

J. Chow, G. Town, B. Eggleton, M. Ibsen, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, "Multiwavelength generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser using in-fiber comb filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 60-62 (1996).

O. Graydon, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, L. Dong, "Triple-frequency operation of an er-doped twincore fiber loop laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 63-65 (1996).

1991 (1)

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).

1988 (1)

D. B. Mortimore, "Fiber loop reflectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1217-1224 (1988).

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. Yamashita, K. Hotate, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using intracavity etalon and cooled by liquid nitrogen," Electron. Lett. 32, 1298-1299 (1996).

D. R. Chen, Z. W. Yu, S. Qin, S. L. He, "Switchable dual-wavelength raman erbium-doped fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 42, 202-204 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, "Average inversion level, modelling and physics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 991-1007 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Ahmed, N. Kishi, T. Miki, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber fabry-perot laser and its uniform spectral lines power operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 753-755 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, "24-Line multiwavelength Operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1459-1461 (1996).

J. Yao, J. Yao, Z. Deng, J. Liu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser incorporating an SOA-based phase modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 756-758 (2005).

Y. G. Han, G. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, "Lasing wavelength and switchable multiwavelength fiber laser from 1510 to 1620 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 989-991 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Chow, G. Town, B. Eggleton, M. Ibsen, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, "Multiwavelength generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser using in-fiber comb filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 60-62 (1996).

O. Graydon, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, L. Dong, "Triple-frequency operation of an er-doped twincore fiber loop laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 63-65 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Yang, X. Dong, S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Zhou, C. Lu, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with 0.8-nm spacing using sampled bragg grating and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2538-2540 (2005).

A. Zhang, H. Liu, M. S. Demokan, H. Y. Tam, "Stable and broad bandwidth multiwavelength fiber ring laser incorporating a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2535-2537 (2005).

Int. J. Light Electron Opt. (1)

M. H. Al-Mansoori, F. R. M. Adikan, A. W. Naji, M. K. Abdullah, M. A. Mahdi, "Multiwavelength fabry-perot brillouin-erbium fiber laser," Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 117, 128-130 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Bellemare, M. Karasek, M. Rochette, S. Larochelle, M. Tetu, "Room temperature multifrequency erbium-doped fiber lasers anchored on the ITU frequency grid," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 825-831 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

D. B. Mortimore, "Fiber loop reflectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1217-1224 (1988).

G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Vijayraghavan, S. Sridaran, "Investigation of the dynamic response of Erbium fiber lasers with potential application for sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1786-1796 (2007).

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber Grating Sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Stewart, P. Shields, B. Culshaw, "Development of fiber laser systems for ring-down and intra-cavity gas spectroscopy in the near-IR," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1621-1628 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (2)

K. Zhou, D. Zhou, F. Dong, N. Q. Ngo, "Room-temperature multiwavelength erbium doped fiber ring laser employing sinusoidal phase-modulation feedback," Opt. Lett. 28, 893-895 (2003).

Y. J. Song, L. Zhan, J. H. Ji, Y. Su, Q. H. Ye, Y. X. Xia, "Self-seeded multiwavelength brillouin-erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 486-488 (2005).

Other (4)

M. A. Mirza, G. Stewart, "Design of a multiwavelength fiber laser using an intra-cavity phase modulator and Sagnac loop filter for sensor applications," Proc. SPIE, 3rd Eur. Workshop Optical Fiber Sens. (2007) pp. K1-K4.

Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, 2001).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers. (University Science Books, 1986) pp. 502–503, 980-982.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, R. J. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers. (Academic, 1999) pp. 147-157.

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