Abstract

We report that the center-launching technique can be improved to selectively excite the fundamental mode of multimode fiber (MMF). This “mode-field matched” center-launching technique enables us to excite only the fundamental mode in the MMF and, consequently, avoid the inherent limitations imposed by the differential mode delay. We realize this mode-field matched center-launching technique simply by fusion-splicing a single-mode fiber (SMF) pigtailed transmitter to the MMF. The splicing condition is optimized to expand the core of SMF slightly so that it can match the mode field distribution of the fundamental mode of MMF. The results show that, by using this launching technique, we can achieve the transmission characteristics similar to SMF and drastically increase the bandwidth-distance product of MMF. For demonstrations, we have successfully transmitted 10- and 40-Gb/s signals over 12.2 and 3.7 km of MMF, respectively, without using any dispersion compensation techniques. We have also evaluated the robustness of the MMF link implemented by using the proposed launching technique against the mechanical perturbations such as the lateral offset between fiber connectors, fiber bending, and fiber shaking.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kuchta, Y. Kwark, P. Pleunis, G. Kuyt, "15.6-Gb/s transmission over 1 km of next generation multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 717-719 (2002).
  2. E. J. Tyler, P. Kourtessis, M. Webster, E. Rochart, T. Quinlan, S. E. M. Dudley, S. D. Walker, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Toward terabit-per-second capacities over multimode fiber links using SCM/WDM techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3237-3243 (2003).
  3. C. Xia, M. Ajgaonkar, W. Rosenkranz, "On the performance of the electrical equalization technique in MMF links for 10-Gigabit ethernet," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2001-2011 (2005).
  4. K. Balemarthy, A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "Electronic equalization of multikilometer 10-Gb/s multimode fiber links: Mode-coupling effects," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4885-4894 (2006).
  5. D. Đonlagić, "Opportunities to enhance multimode fiber links by application of overfilled launch," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3526-3540 (2005).
  6. Z. Haas, M. A. Santoro, "A mode-filtering scheme for improvement of the bandwidth-distance product in multimode fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1125-1131 (1993).
  7. L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324-331 (1998).
  8. M. Webster, L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, "A statistical analysis of conditioned launch for gigabit ethernet links using multimode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1532-1541 (1999).
  9. A. Risteski, P. Pepeljugoski, "Optimization of launch conditions in 10-Gb/s links using next-generation multimode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1394-1396 (2004).
  10. S. S.-H. Yam, F. Achten, "Single wavelength 40 Gbit/s transmission over 3.4 km broad wavelength window multimode fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 592-594 (2006).
  11. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Transmission of 10-Gb/s and 40-Gb/s signals over 3.7 km of multimode fiber using mode-field matched center launching technique," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest AnaheimCA (2007) OTuL3.
  12. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Robustness evaluation of MMF transmission link using mode-field matched center-launching technique," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest San DiegoCA (2008) OWR3.
  13. I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, "1 ${\hbox {Tb}}/{\hbox {s}}\cdot {\hbox {km}}$ multimode fiber link combining WDM transmission and low-linewidth lasers," Opt. Exp. 16, 8033-8038 (2008).
  14. Y. Sun, M. E. Ali, K. Balemarthy, R. L. Lingle Jr., S. E. Ralph, B. E. Lemoff, "10 Gb/s transmission over 300 m OM3 fiber from 990–1080 nm with electronic dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest AnaheimCA (2006) OTuE2.
  15. X. Shen, J. M. Kahn, M. A. Horowitz, "Compensation for multimode fiber dispersion by adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 30, 2985-2987 (2005).
  16. R. A. Panicker, J. P. Wilde, J. M. Kahn, D. F. Welch, I. Lyubomirsky, "10$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s DWDM transmission through 2.2-km multimode fiber using adaptive optics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1154-1156 (2007).
  17. T. Koonen, H. v. d. Boom, I. T. Monroy, G.-D. Khoe, "High capacity multi-service in-house networks using mode group diversity multiplexing," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest AnaheimCA (2004) FG4.
  18. C. P. Tsekrekos, A. M. J. Koonen, "Mode-selective spatial filtering for increased robustness in a mode group diversity multiplexing link," Opt. Lett. 32, 1041-1043 (2007).
  19. S. Schöllmann, S. Soneff, W. Rosenkranz, "10.7 Gb/s over 300 m GI-MMF using a 2$\,\times\,$2 MIMO system based on mode group diversity multiplexing," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest AnaheimCA (2007) OTuL2.
  20. M. N. Mclandrich, "Core dopant profiles in weakly fused single-mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 24, 8-10 (1988).
  21. J. W. Fleming, C. R. Kurkjian, U. C. Paek, "Measurement of cation diffusion in silica light guides," J. Amer. Ceramic Soc. 68, C-246-C-248 (1985).
  22. K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, "Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1151-1161 (1990).
  23. T. Itoh, H. Fukuyama, S. Tsunashima, E. Yoshida, Y. Yamabayashi, M. Muraguchi, H. Toba, H. Sugahara, "1-km transmission of 10 Gbit/s optical signal over legacy MMF using mode limiting transmission and incoherent light source," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest AnaheimCA (2005) OWH3.
  24. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "100-Gb/s transmission over 12.2 km of multimode fiber using mode-field matched center launching technique," Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. Post-Deadline Papers Techn. Dig. YokohamaJapan (2007) PD2–3.
  25. P. Dawe, L. Aronson, J. McVey, S. Bhoja, J. Ewen, M. Lobel, P. Popescu, A. Shanbhag, N. Weiner, B. Willcocks, "How many connections for 10GBASE-LRM?," IEEE 802.3 aq Mar. 2005 Plenary Meeting .
  26. K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, "Impulse response prediction based on experimental mode coupling coefficient in a 10-km-long graded-index fiber," J. Quantum Electronics QE-16, 356-362 (1980).
  27. R. Olshansky, "Mode coupling effects in graded-index optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 14, 935-945 (1975).
  28. J. King, R. Coenen, D. Cunningham, J. Dalessasse, P. Dawe, J. Fielder, A. Ghiasi, P. Hallemeier, J. Hanberg, J. Jaeger, P. Kolesar, B. Whitlock, T. Maio, P. Pepeljugoski, P. Popescu, A. V. Schyndel, Y. Sun, N. Swanson, L. Thon , "Task 2 update: Time variation and modal noise study," IEEE 802.3 aq Sep. 2004 Interim Meeting .
  29. P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$ multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).
  30. D. Marcuse, "Derivation of coupled power equations," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 229-237 (1972).

2008 (1)

I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, "1 ${\hbox {Tb}}/{\hbox {s}}\cdot {\hbox {km}}$ multimode fiber link combining WDM transmission and low-linewidth lasers," Opt. Exp. 16, 8033-8038 (2008).

2007 (2)

R. A. Panicker, J. P. Wilde, J. M. Kahn, D. F. Welch, I. Lyubomirsky, "10$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s DWDM transmission through 2.2-km multimode fiber using adaptive optics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1154-1156 (2007).

C. P. Tsekrekos, A. M. J. Koonen, "Mode-selective spatial filtering for increased robustness in a mode group diversity multiplexing link," Opt. Lett. 32, 1041-1043 (2007).

2006 (2)

K. Balemarthy, A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "Electronic equalization of multikilometer 10-Gb/s multimode fiber links: Mode-coupling effects," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4885-4894 (2006).

S. S.-H. Yam, F. Achten, "Single wavelength 40 Gbit/s transmission over 3.4 km broad wavelength window multimode fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 592-594 (2006).

2005 (3)

D. Đonlagić, "Opportunities to enhance multimode fiber links by application of overfilled launch," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3526-3540 (2005).

C. Xia, M. Ajgaonkar, W. Rosenkranz, "On the performance of the electrical equalization technique in MMF links for 10-Gigabit ethernet," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2001-2011 (2005).

X. Shen, J. M. Kahn, M. A. Horowitz, "Compensation for multimode fiber dispersion by adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 30, 2985-2987 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Risteski, P. Pepeljugoski, "Optimization of launch conditions in 10-Gb/s links using next-generation multimode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1394-1396 (2004).

2003 (2)

E. J. Tyler, P. Kourtessis, M. Webster, E. Rochart, T. Quinlan, S. E. M. Dudley, S. D. Walker, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Toward terabit-per-second capacities over multimode fiber links using SCM/WDM techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3237-3243 (2003).

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$ multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).

2002 (1)

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kuchta, Y. Kwark, P. Pleunis, G. Kuyt, "15.6-Gb/s transmission over 1 km of next generation multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 717-719 (2002).

1999 (1)

M. Webster, L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, "A statistical analysis of conditioned launch for gigabit ethernet links using multimode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1532-1541 (1999).

1998 (1)

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324-331 (1998).

1993 (1)

Z. Haas, M. A. Santoro, "A mode-filtering scheme for improvement of the bandwidth-distance product in multimode fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1125-1131 (1993).

1990 (1)

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, "Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1151-1161 (1990).

1988 (1)

M. N. Mclandrich, "Core dopant profiles in weakly fused single-mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 24, 8-10 (1988).

1985 (1)

J. W. Fleming, C. R. Kurkjian, U. C. Paek, "Measurement of cation diffusion in silica light guides," J. Amer. Ceramic Soc. 68, C-246-C-248 (1985).

1980 (1)

K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, "Impulse response prediction based on experimental mode coupling coefficient in a 10-km-long graded-index fiber," J. Quantum Electronics QE-16, 356-362 (1980).

1975 (1)

1972 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Derivation of coupled power equations," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 229-237 (1972).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, "Derivation of coupled power equations," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 229-237 (1972).

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. N. Mclandrich, "Core dopant profiles in weakly fused single-mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 24, 8-10 (1988).

S. S.-H. Yam, F. Achten, "Single wavelength 40 Gbit/s transmission over 3.4 km broad wavelength window multimode fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 592-594 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Risteski, P. Pepeljugoski, "Optimization of launch conditions in 10-Gb/s links using next-generation multimode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1394-1396 (2004).

R. A. Panicker, J. P. Wilde, J. M. Kahn, D. F. Welch, I. Lyubomirsky, "10$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s DWDM transmission through 2.2-km multimode fiber using adaptive optics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1154-1156 (2007).

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kuchta, Y. Kwark, P. Pleunis, G. Kuyt, "15.6-Gb/s transmission over 1 km of next generation multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 717-719 (2002).

J. Amer. Ceramic Soc. (1)

J. W. Fleming, C. R. Kurkjian, U. C. Paek, "Measurement of cation diffusion in silica light guides," J. Amer. Ceramic Soc. 68, C-246-C-248 (1985).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, "Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1151-1161 (1990).

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$ multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).

E. J. Tyler, P. Kourtessis, M. Webster, E. Rochart, T. Quinlan, S. E. M. Dudley, S. D. Walker, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Toward terabit-per-second capacities over multimode fiber links using SCM/WDM techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3237-3243 (2003).

C. Xia, M. Ajgaonkar, W. Rosenkranz, "On the performance of the electrical equalization technique in MMF links for 10-Gigabit ethernet," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2001-2011 (2005).

K. Balemarthy, A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "Electronic equalization of multikilometer 10-Gb/s multimode fiber links: Mode-coupling effects," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4885-4894 (2006).

D. Đonlagić, "Opportunities to enhance multimode fiber links by application of overfilled launch," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3526-3540 (2005).

Z. Haas, M. A. Santoro, "A mode-filtering scheme for improvement of the bandwidth-distance product in multimode fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1125-1131 (1993).

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324-331 (1998).

M. Webster, L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, "A statistical analysis of conditioned launch for gigabit ethernet links using multimode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1532-1541 (1999).

J. Quantum Electronics (1)

K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, "Impulse response prediction based on experimental mode coupling coefficient in a 10-km-long graded-index fiber," J. Quantum Electronics QE-16, 356-362 (1980).

Opt. Exp. (1)

I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, "1 ${\hbox {Tb}}/{\hbox {s}}\cdot {\hbox {km}}$ multimode fiber link combining WDM transmission and low-linewidth lasers," Opt. Exp. 16, 8033-8038 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (9)

S. Schöllmann, S. Soneff, W. Rosenkranz, "10.7 Gb/s over 300 m GI-MMF using a 2$\,\times\,$2 MIMO system based on mode group diversity multiplexing," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest AnaheimCA (2007) OTuL2.

J. King, R. Coenen, D. Cunningham, J. Dalessasse, P. Dawe, J. Fielder, A. Ghiasi, P. Hallemeier, J. Hanberg, J. Jaeger, P. Kolesar, B. Whitlock, T. Maio, P. Pepeljugoski, P. Popescu, A. V. Schyndel, Y. Sun, N. Swanson, L. Thon , "Task 2 update: Time variation and modal noise study," IEEE 802.3 aq Sep. 2004 Interim Meeting .

T. Itoh, H. Fukuyama, S. Tsunashima, E. Yoshida, Y. Yamabayashi, M. Muraguchi, H. Toba, H. Sugahara, "1-km transmission of 10 Gbit/s optical signal over legacy MMF using mode limiting transmission and incoherent light source," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest AnaheimCA (2005) OWH3.

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "100-Gb/s transmission over 12.2 km of multimode fiber using mode-field matched center launching technique," Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. Post-Deadline Papers Techn. Dig. YokohamaJapan (2007) PD2–3.

P. Dawe, L. Aronson, J. McVey, S. Bhoja, J. Ewen, M. Lobel, P. Popescu, A. Shanbhag, N. Weiner, B. Willcocks, "How many connections for 10GBASE-LRM?," IEEE 802.3 aq Mar. 2005 Plenary Meeting .

T. Koonen, H. v. d. Boom, I. T. Monroy, G.-D. Khoe, "High capacity multi-service in-house networks using mode group diversity multiplexing," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest AnaheimCA (2004) FG4.

Y. Sun, M. E. Ali, K. Balemarthy, R. L. Lingle Jr., S. E. Ralph, B. E. Lemoff, "10 Gb/s transmission over 300 m OM3 fiber from 990–1080 nm with electronic dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest AnaheimCA (2006) OTuE2.

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Transmission of 10-Gb/s and 40-Gb/s signals over 3.7 km of multimode fiber using mode-field matched center launching technique," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest AnaheimCA (2007) OTuL3.

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Robustness evaluation of MMF transmission link using mode-field matched center-launching technique," Opt. Fiber Conf. Tech. Digest San DiegoCA (2008) OWR3.

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