Abstract

Due to the lateral inscription process, photo-induced birefringence is present in fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written into photosensitive single mode fiber. The birefringence value is generally too small to be perceived in the grating spectral response but it can lead to significant polarization dependent loss (PDL) and differential group delay (DGD) evolutions. In this paper, we first theoretically analyze the evolution with wavelength of PDL and DGD as a function of the grating parameters and the birefringence value. We demonstrate that the PDL and DGD evolutions with wavelength can be strongly enhanced by a modification of the grating parameters. Simulations carried out using the coupled mode theory and the Jones formalism are then confirmed by experiments conducted on FBGs written into photosensitive single mode fiber. Our work brings a complete characterization of polarization related phenomena in FBGs and presents a great interest for the evaluation of system performances and the design of gratings for specific applications, either for telecommunications or sensing purposes. In addition, based on the comparison between experimental and simulated evolutions, we are able to verify that the birefringence value is strongly dependent on the fluence of the laser used for the grating inscription.

© 2009 IEEE

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2007 (2)

S. Bette, C. Caucheteur, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, "Theoretical and experimental study of differential group delay and polarization dependent loss of Bragg gratings written in birefringent fiber," Opt. Commun. 269, 331-337 (2007).

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Mégret, "Transverse strain measurements using the birefringence effect in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966-968 (2007).

2005 (3)

F. Lhommé, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, M. Blondel, P. Mégret, "Synthesis of fiber Bragg grating parameters from experimental reflectivity: A simplex approach and its application to the determination of temperature-dependent properties," Appl. Opt. 44, 493-497 (2005).

P. Lu, D. S. Waddy, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, "Characterization of the growths of UV-induced birefringence in effective mode index and index modulation in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2237-2239 (2005).

S. Bette, C. Caucheteur, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, R. Garcia-Olcina, S. Sales, J. Capmany, "Spectral characterization of differential group delay in uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Exp. 13, 9954-9960 (2005).

2004 (3)

S. T. Oh, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Discrimination of temperature and strain with a single FBG based on the birefringence effect," Opt. Exp. 12, 724-729 (2004).

N. Belhadj, S. LaRochelle, K. Dossou, "Form birefringence in UV-exposed photosensitive fibers computed using a higher order finite element method," Opt. Exp. 12, 1720-1726 (2004).

D. Wang, M. Matthews, J. Brennan, III"Polarization mode dispersion in chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Exp. 12, 5741-5753 (2004).

2000 (2)

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, "A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231-1239 (2000).

B. Huttner, C. Geiser, N. Gisin, "Polarization-induced distortion in optical fiber networks with polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 317-329 (2000).

1997 (2)

N. Gisin, B. Huttner, "Combined effects of polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent losses in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 142, 119-125 (1997).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber Grating Spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

1996 (1)

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, J. Marti, "Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2581-2588 (1996).

1994 (3)

G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "Phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings and their application for wavelength demultiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 995-997 (1994).

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, "Characterization of UV-induced birefringence in photosensitive Ge-doped silica optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 11, 2100-2105 (1994).

A. M. Vengsarkar, Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, W. A. Reed, P. Lemaire, S. G. Kosinski, "Birefringence reduction in side-written photoinduced fiber devices by a dual-exposure method," Opt. Lett. 19, 1260-1262 (1994).

1992 (1)

B. L. Heffner, "Deterministic and analytically complete measurement of polarization dependent transmission through optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 451-453 (1992).

1987 (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Huttner, C. Geiser, N. Gisin, "Polarization-induced distortion in optical fiber networks with polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 317-329 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

P. Lu, D. S. Waddy, S. J. Mihailov, H. Ding, "Characterization of the growths of UV-induced birefringence in effective mode index and index modulation in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2237-2239 (2005).

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Mégret, "Transverse strain measurements using the birefringence effect in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966-968 (2007).

G. P. Agrawal, S. Radic, "Phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings and their application for wavelength demultiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 995-997 (1994).

B. L. Heffner, "Deterministic and analytically complete measurement of polarization dependent transmission through optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 451-453 (1992).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. P. Grover, "A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231-1239 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, J. Marti, "Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2581-2588 (1996).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber Grating Spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, "Characterization of UV-induced birefringence in photosensitive Ge-doped silica optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 11, 2100-2105 (1994).

Opt. Commun. (2)

N. Gisin, B. Huttner, "Combined effects of polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent losses in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 142, 119-125 (1997).

S. Bette, C. Caucheteur, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, "Theoretical and experimental study of differential group delay and polarization dependent loss of Bragg gratings written in birefringent fiber," Opt. Commun. 269, 331-337 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (4)

S. Bette, C. Caucheteur, M. Wuilpart, P. Mégret, R. Garcia-Olcina, S. Sales, J. Capmany, "Spectral characterization of differential group delay in uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Exp. 13, 9954-9960 (2005).

S. T. Oh, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Discrimination of temperature and strain with a single FBG based on the birefringence effect," Opt. Exp. 12, 724-729 (2004).

N. Belhadj, S. LaRochelle, K. Dossou, "Form birefringence in UV-exposed photosensitive fibers computed using a higher order finite element method," Opt. Exp. 12, 1720-1726 (2004).

D. Wang, M. Matthews, J. Brennan, III"Polarization mode dispersion in chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Exp. 12, 5741-5753 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

M. Schiano, G. Zaffiro, "Polarization mode dispersion in chirped fiber gratings," Proc. 24th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (1998) pp. 403-405.

E. Ciaramella, E. Riccardi, M. Schiano, "System penalties due to polarisation mode dispersion of chirped gratings," Proc. 24th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (1998) pp. 515-516.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

D. Derikson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall, 1998).

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