Due to the lateral inscription process, photo-induced birefringence is present in fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written into photosensitive single mode fiber. The birefringence value is generally too small to be perceived in the grating spectral response but it can lead to significant polarization dependent loss (PDL) and differential group delay (DGD) evolutions. In this paper, we first theoretically analyze the evolution with wavelength of PDL and DGD as a function of the grating parameters and the birefringence value. We demonstrate that the PDL and DGD evolutions with wavelength can be strongly enhanced by a modification of the grating parameters. Simulations carried out using the coupled mode theory and the Jones formalism are then confirmed by experiments conducted on FBGs written into photosensitive single mode fiber. Our work brings a complete characterization of polarization related phenomena in FBGs and presents a great interest for the evaluation of system performances and the design of gratings for specific applications, either for telecommunications or sensing purposes. In addition, based on the comparison between experimental and simulated evolutions, we are able to verify that the birefringence value is strongly dependent on the fluence of the laser used for the grating inscription.
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