Abstract

Recent attention has been attracted by photo-detectors integrated onto silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides that exploit the enhanced sensitivity to subbandgap wavelengths resulting from absorption via point defects introduced by ion implantation. In this paper, we present the first model to describe the carrier generation process of such detectors, based upon modified Shockley-Read-Hall generation/recombination, and, thus, determine the influence of the device design on detection efficiency. We further describe how the model may be incorporated into commercial software, which then simulates the performance of previously reported devices by assuming a single midgap defect level (with properties commensurate with the single negatively charged divacancy). We describe the ability of the model to highlight the major limitations to responsivity, and thus suggest improvements which diminish the impact of such limitations.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 1991).
  2. T. D. Bestwick, "Active silicon integrated optical circuits," Materials and Devices for Silicon-Based Optoelectronics Symposium (1998) pp. 57-65.
  3. H. Park, "Hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Exp. 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
  4. L. Colace, "Ge on Si $p-i-n$ photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101111-1-101111-3 (2006).
  5. J. Liu, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge $p-i-n$ photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501-1-103501-3 (2005).
  6. M. Morse, "Performance of Ge-on-Si $p-i-n$ photodetectors for standard receiver modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442-2444 (2006).
  7. A. P. Knights, "Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with self-ion-implantation engineered-enhanced infrared response," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A24, 783-786 (2006).
  8. A. P. Knights, "Monolithically integrated photodetectors for optical signal monitoring in silicon waveguides," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 61250J-1-61250J-12.
  9. Y. Liu, "In-line channel power monitor based on Helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1882-1884 (2006).
  10. M. W. Geis, "CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).
  11. M. W. Geis, "All silicon infrared photodiodes: Photo response and effects of processing temperature," Opt. Exp. 15, 16886-16895 (2007).
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  14. M. J. Keevers, M. A. Green, "Efficiency improvements of silicon solar cells by the impurity photovoltaic effect," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4022-4031 (1994).
  15. S. Wang, Fundamentals of Semiconductor Theory and Device Physics. (Prentice-Hall, 1989) pp. 277-83.
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  17. S. M. Sze, K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007) pp. 674-.
  18. P. J. Foster, "Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101-1-073101-7 (2006).
  19. S. D. Brotherton, P. Bradley, "Defect production and lifetime control in electron and $\gamma$-irradiated silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5720-5732 (1982).
  20. RSoft Design Group, Inc. © 2002. www.rsoftdesign.com.
  21. R. Harding, "Identification by photoluminescence and positron annihilation of vacancy and interstitial intrinsic defects in ion-implanted silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1-4 (2006).
  22. L. Pelaz, "Ion-beam amorphized and recrystallization in silicon," l. Appl. Phys. 96, 5947-5976 (2004).
  23. P. Hazdra, "Effect of defects produced by MeV H and He ion implantation on characteristics of power silicon p-i-n diodes," Proc. IEEE Conf. Ion Implant. Technol. (2000) pp. 135-137.
  24. J. L. Benton, "Evolution from point to extended defects in ion implanted silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 120-125 (1997).
  25. P. G. Coleman, "Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 946-949 (2002).

2007 (3)

H. Park, "Hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Exp. 15, 13539-13546 (2007).

M. W. Geis, "CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).

M. W. Geis, "All silicon infrared photodiodes: Photo response and effects of processing temperature," Opt. Exp. 15, 16886-16895 (2007).

2006 (6)

L. Colace, "Ge on Si $p-i-n$ photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101111-1-101111-3 (2006).

M. Morse, "Performance of Ge-on-Si $p-i-n$ photodetectors for standard receiver modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442-2444 (2006).

A. P. Knights, "Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with self-ion-implantation engineered-enhanced infrared response," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A24, 783-786 (2006).

Y. Liu, "In-line channel power monitor based on Helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1882-1884 (2006).

P. J. Foster, "Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101-1-073101-7 (2006).

R. Harding, "Identification by photoluminescence and positron annihilation of vacancy and interstitial intrinsic defects in ion-implanted silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1-4 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. Liu, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge $p-i-n$ photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501-1-103501-3 (2005).

2004 (1)

L. Pelaz, "Ion-beam amorphized and recrystallization in silicon," l. Appl. Phys. 96, 5947-5976 (2004).

2002 (1)

P. G. Coleman, "Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 946-949 (2002).

2000 (1)

E. Simoen, "Impact of the divacancy on the generation-recombination properties of 10 MeV proton irradiated float-zone silicon diodes," Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A 439, 310-318 (2000).

1997 (1)

J. L. Benton, "Evolution from point to extended defects in ion implanted silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 120-125 (1997).

1994 (1)

M. J. Keevers, M. A. Green, "Efficiency improvements of silicon solar cells by the impurity photovoltaic effect," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4022-4031 (1994).

1982 (1)

S. D. Brotherton, P. Bradley, "Defect production and lifetime control in electron and $\gamma$-irradiated silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5720-5732 (1982).

1952 (1)

W. Schockley, W. T. Read, "Statistics of the recombination of holes and electrons," Phys. Rev. 87, 835-842 (1952).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. G. Coleman, "Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 946-949 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Colace, "Ge on Si $p-i-n$ photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101111-1-101111-3 (2006).

J. Liu, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge $p-i-n$ photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501-1-103501-3 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, "In-line channel power monitor based on Helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1882-1884 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. W. Geis, "CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007).

M. Morse, "Performance of Ge-on-Si $p-i-n$ photodetectors for standard receiver modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442-2444 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. L. Benton, "Evolution from point to extended defects in ion implanted silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 120-125 (1997).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

P. J. Foster, "Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101-1-073101-7 (2006).

S. D. Brotherton, P. Bradley, "Defect production and lifetime control in electron and $\gamma$-irradiated silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5720-5732 (1982).

R. Harding, "Identification by photoluminescence and positron annihilation of vacancy and interstitial intrinsic defects in ion-implanted silicon," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 1-4 (2006).

M. J. Keevers, M. A. Green, "Efficiency improvements of silicon solar cells by the impurity photovoltaic effect," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4022-4031 (1994).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. P. Knights, "Silicon-on-insulator waveguide photodetector with self-ion-implantation engineered-enhanced infrared response," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A24, 783-786 (2006).

l. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Pelaz, "Ion-beam amorphized and recrystallization in silicon," l. Appl. Phys. 96, 5947-5976 (2004).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A (1)

E. Simoen, "Impact of the divacancy on the generation-recombination properties of 10 MeV proton irradiated float-zone silicon diodes," Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A 439, 310-318 (2000).

Opt. Exp. (1)

M. W. Geis, "All silicon infrared photodiodes: Photo response and effects of processing temperature," Opt. Exp. 15, 16886-16895 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (1)

H. Park, "Hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Exp. 15, 13539-13546 (2007).

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. Schockley, W. T. Read, "Statistics of the recombination of holes and electrons," Phys. Rev. 87, 835-842 (1952).

Other (8)

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 1991).

T. D. Bestwick, "Active silicon integrated optical circuits," Materials and Devices for Silicon-Based Optoelectronics Symposium (1998) pp. 57-65.

S. M. Sze, K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007) pp. 674-.

S. Wang, Fundamentals of Semiconductor Theory and Device Physics. (Prentice-Hall, 1989) pp. 277-83.

Silvaco Data Systems Inc. © 1984–2008. www.silvaco.com.

A. P. Knights, "Monolithically integrated photodetectors for optical signal monitoring in silicon waveguides," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 61250J-1-61250J-12.

P. Hazdra, "Effect of defects produced by MeV H and He ion implantation on characteristics of power silicon p-i-n diodes," Proc. IEEE Conf. Ion Implant. Technol. (2000) pp. 135-137.

RSoft Design Group, Inc. © 2002. www.rsoftdesign.com.

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