Abstract

We report here on the design, fabrication, and high-speed performance of a parallel optical transceiver based on a single CMOS amplifier chip incorporating 16 transmitter and 16 receiver channels. The optical interfaces to the chip are provided by 16-channel photodiode (PD) and VCSEL arrays that are directly flip-chip soldered to the CMOS IC. The substrate emitting/illuminated VCSEL/PD arrays operate at 985 nm and include integrated lenses. The complete transceivers are low-cost, low-profile, highly integrated assemblies that are compatible with conventional chip packaging technology such as direct flip-chip soldering to organic circuit boards. In addition, the packaging approach, dense hybrid integration, readily scales to higher channel counts, supporting future massively parallel optical data buses. All transmitter and receiver channels operate at speeds up to 15 Gb/s for an aggregate bidirectional data rate of 240Gb/s. Interchannel crosstalk was extensively characterized and the dominant source was found to be between receiver channels, with a maximum sensitivity penalty of 1 dB measured at 10 Gb/s for a victim channel completely surrounded by active aggressor channels. The transceiver measures 3.25$\, \times\,$5.25 mm and consumes 2.15 W of power with all channels fully operational. The per-bit power consumption is as low as 9 mW/Gb/s, and this is the first single-chip optical transceiver capable of channel rates in excess of 10 Gb/s. The area efficiency of 14 Gb/s/mm$^{2}$ per link is the highest ever reported for any parallel optical transmitter, receiver, or transceiver reported to-date.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Kash, D. Kuchta, M. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).
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  21. R. Aparicio, A. Hajimiri, "Capacity limits and matching properties of integrated capacitors," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 384-393 (2002).
  22. E. Cherry, D. Hooper, "The design of wide-band transistor feedback amplifiers," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 110, 375-389 (1963).
  23. C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, K. Djordjev, S. W. Corzine, M. R. T. Tan, "High-speed 985 nm bottom-emitting VCSEL arrays for chip-to-chip parallel optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1332-1339 (2007).
  24. Kyocera SLC Technologies, Yasu, Shiga, Japan (2008). http://www.kyocera-slc.co.jp/english/ .
  25. F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, J. A. Kash, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," ," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. .
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  28. C. L. Schow, L. Schares, S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, R. John, F. E. Doany, "A 15-Gb/s, 2.4 V optical receiver using a Ge-on-SOI photodiode and a CMOS IC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1981-1983 (2006).
  29. C. L. Schow, F. E. Doany, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, R. John, J. A. Kash, "160-Gb/s, 16-channel full-duplex, single-chip CMOS optical transceiver," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. OFC 2007 (2007) pp. 1-3.
  30. O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, C. L. Schow, P. K. Pepeljogoski, F. E. Doany, R. A. John, J. A. Kash, "A 17-Gb/s, 200-m multimode optical fiber link using CMOS analog ICs and silicon carrier packaging," Proc. IEEE LEOS 20th Ann. Meet. (2006) pp. 573-574.
  31. S. J. Koester, C. L. Schow, L. Schares, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaub, F. E. Doany, R. A. John, "Ge-on-SOI-detector/CMOS-amplifier receivers for high-performance optical-communication applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2046-2058 (2007).
  32. Y.-C. Chang, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with 35 Gbit/s error-free operation," Elecron. Lett. 43, 1022-1023 (2007).
  33. R. H. Johnson, D. Kuchta, "30 Gb/s directly modulated 850 nm datacom VCSELs," Postdeadline Paper CLEO/QELS 2008 (2008).

2007 (3)

C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, K. Djordjev, S. W. Corzine, M. R. T. Tan, "High-speed 985 nm bottom-emitting VCSEL arrays for chip-to-chip parallel optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1332-1339 (2007).

S. J. Koester, C. L. Schow, L. Schares, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaub, F. E. Doany, R. A. John, "Ge-on-SOI-detector/CMOS-amplifier receivers for high-performance optical-communication applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2046-2058 (2007).

Y.-C. Chang, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with 35 Gbit/s error-free operation," Elecron. Lett. 43, 1022-1023 (2007).

2006 (3)

C. L. Schow, L. Schares, S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, R. John, F. E. Doany, "A 15-Gb/s, 2.4 V optical receiver using a Ge-on-SOI photodiode and a CMOS IC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1981-1983 (2006).

C. L. Schow, L. Schares, R. A. John, L. S. Fischer, D. Guckenberger, "A 25-Gb/s transimpedance amplifier in 0.13 $\mu$m CMOS," Electron. Lett. 42, 1240-1241 (2006).

L. Schares, "Terabus: Tb/s-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., Special Issue on Optoelectron. Pack. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

2005 (2)

A. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Kash, D. Kuchta, M. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

D. Guckenberger, C. Schuster, Y. H. Kwark, K. Kornegay, "On-chip crosstalk mitigation for densely packed differential striplines using via fence enclosures," Electron. Lett. 41, 412-414 (2005).

2004 (3)

D. M. Kuchta, Y. H. Kwark, C. Schuster, C. Baks, C. Haymes, J. Schaub, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Shan, R. John, D. Kucharski, D. Rogers, M. Ritter, J. Jewell, L. A. Graham, K. Schrödinger, A. Schild, H.-M. Rein, "120-Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel-optical interconnect and custom 120-Gb/s testing station," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2200-2212 (2004).

L. A. Buckman-Windover, J. N. Simon, S. A. Rosenau, K. S. Giboney, G. M. Flower, L. W. Mirkarimi, A. Grot, B. Law, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, R. W. Gruhlke, H. Xia, G. Rankin, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, "Parallel optical interconnects $> 100$ Gb/s," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2055-2063 (2004).

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, D. W. Dolfi, "MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-the-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2043-2054 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O. Laprise, J. E. A. Lugo, D. V. Plant, "Design and test of an optoelectronic-vlsi chip with 540-element receiver-transmitter arrays using differential optical signaling," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 361-379 (2003).

J. Trezza, H. Hamster, J. Iamartino, H. Bagheri, C. DeCustatis, "Parallel optical interconnects for enterprise class server clusters: needs and technology solutions," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, S36-S42 (2003).

2002 (1)

R. Aparicio, A. Hajimiri, "Capacity limits and matching properties of integrated capacitors," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 384-393 (2002).

2001 (1)

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, "256-Channel bidirectional optical interconnect using vcsels and photodiodes on CMOS," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1093-1103 (2001).

2000 (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, "16$\,\times\,$16 VCSEL array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1073-1075 (2000).

1969 (1)

L. F. Miller, "Controlled collapse reflow chip joining," IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 239-250 (1969).

1963 (1)

E. Cherry, D. Hooper, "The design of wide-band transistor feedback amplifiers," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 110, 375-389 (1963).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

D. M. Kuchta, Y. H. Kwark, C. Schuster, C. Baks, C. Haymes, J. Schaub, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Shan, R. John, D. Kucharski, D. Rogers, M. Ritter, J. Jewell, L. A. Graham, K. Schrödinger, A. Schild, H.-M. Rein, "120-Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel-optical interconnect and custom 120-Gb/s testing station," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2200-2212 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. J. Koester, C. L. Schow, L. Schares, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaub, F. E. Doany, R. A. John, "Ge-on-SOI-detector/CMOS-amplifier receivers for high-performance optical-communication applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2046-2058 (2007).

," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, J. A. Kash, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," ," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. .

Elecron. Lett. (1)

Y.-C. Chang, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with 35 Gbit/s error-free operation," Elecron. Lett. 43, 1022-1023 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (2)

C. L. Schow, L. Schares, R. A. John, L. S. Fischer, D. Guckenberger, "A 25-Gb/s transimpedance amplifier in 0.13 $\mu$m CMOS," Electron. Lett. 42, 1240-1241 (2006).

D. Guckenberger, C. Schuster, Y. H. Kwark, K. Kornegay, "On-chip crosstalk mitigation for densely packed differential striplines using via fence enclosures," Electron. Lett. 41, 412-414 (2005).

IBM J. Res. Dev. (2)

L. F. Miller, "Controlled collapse reflow chip joining," IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 239-250 (1969).

A. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Kash, D. Kuchta, M. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Trezza, H. Hamster, J. Iamartino, H. Bagheri, C. DeCustatis, "Parallel optical interconnects for enterprise class server clusters: needs and technology solutions," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, S36-S42 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., Special Issue on Optoelectron. Pack. (1)

L. Schares, "Terabus: Tb/s-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., Special Issue on Optoelectron. Pack. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, P.-O. Laprise, J. E. A. Lugo, D. V. Plant, "Design and test of an optoelectronic-vlsi chip with 540-element receiver-transmitter arrays using differential optical signaling," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 361-379 (2003).

C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, K. Djordjev, S. W. Corzine, M. R. T. Tan, "High-speed 985 nm bottom-emitting VCSEL arrays for chip-to-chip parallel optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1332-1339 (2007).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

R. Aparicio, A. Hajimiri, "Capacity limits and matching properties of integrated capacitors," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 384-393 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. L. Schow, L. Schares, S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, R. John, F. E. Doany, "A 15-Gb/s, 2.4 V optical receiver using a Ge-on-SOI photodiode and a CMOS IC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1981-1983 (2006).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goosen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, L. A. D'Asaro, "16$\,\times\,$16 VCSEL array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1073-1075 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

L. A. Buckman-Windover, J. N. Simon, S. A. Rosenau, K. S. Giboney, G. M. Flower, L. W. Mirkarimi, A. Grot, B. Law, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, R. W. Gruhlke, H. Xia, G. Rankin, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, "Parallel optical interconnects $> 100$ Gb/s," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2055-2063 (2004).

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, D. W. Dolfi, "MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-the-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2043-2054 (2004).

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chateauneuf, A. G. Kirk, J. S. Ahearn, "256-Channel bidirectional optical interconnect using vcsels and photodiodes on CMOS," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1093-1103 (2001).

Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. (1)

E. Cherry, D. Hooper, "The design of wide-band transistor feedback amplifiers," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. 110, 375-389 (1963).

Other (14)

Kyocera SLC Technologies, Yasu, Shiga, Japan (2008). http://www.kyocera-slc.co.jp/english/ .

C. L. Schow, F. E. Doany, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, L. Schares, R. John, J. A. Kash, "160-Gb/s, 16-channel full-duplex, single-chip CMOS optical transceiver," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. OFC 2007 (2007) pp. 1-3.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, C. L. Schow, P. K. Pepeljogoski, F. E. Doany, R. A. John, J. A. Kash, "A 17-Gb/s, 200-m multimode optical fiber link using CMOS analog ICs and silicon carrier packaging," Proc. IEEE LEOS 20th Ann. Meet. (2006) pp. 573-574.

Fibre Channel Physical Interfaces (FC-PI-2) Standard (2005) FC-PI-2 INCITS 404.

IEEE Standard 802.3ae (2002).

R. H. Johnson, D. Kuchta, "30 Gb/s directly modulated 850 nm datacom VCSELs," Postdeadline Paper CLEO/QELS 2008 (2008).

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, E. de Groot, G. M. Flower, G. H. Rankin, A. J. Schmit, K. D. Djordjev, M. R. T. Tan, A. Tandon, W. Gong, R. P. Tella, B. Law, D. W. Dolfi, "500-Gbps parallel WDM optical interconnect," Proc. 55th Electron. Comput Technol. Conf. (2005).

SNAP12 Multi Source Agreement Group (2002) http://www.avagotech.com SNAP12 12 Channel Pluggable Optical Module MSA Specifications,' Rev. 1.1, Accessed on 1/08/2008.

D. M. Kuchta, D. Kucharski, Y. H. Kwark, R. John, "120 Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel optical links," CPT 2005 Eighth Int. Symp. Contemp. Photon. Technol. (2004) pp. 169-172.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Baks, R. Budd, Y.-J. Chang, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, D. Kuchta, R. John, J. A. Kash, F. Libsch, "160-Gb/s bidirectional parallel optical transceiver module for board level interconnects using a single-chip CMOS IC," Proc. 57th ECTC (2007) pp. 1256-1261.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, C. Baks, R. Budd, P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kuchta, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, "Terabus: A 160-Gb/s bidirectional board level optical data bus," Proc. IEEE LEOS 21st Ann. Meet. (2007).

R. Dangel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, G.-L. Bona, "Development of a low-cost low-loss polymer waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications," Tech. Dig. IEEE/LEOS Summer Top. Meet. (2004).

D. Kucharski, Y. H. Kwark, D. M. Kuchta, K. T. Kornegay, M. R. T. Tan, C.-K. Lynn, A. Tandon, "A 20 Gb/s VCSEL driver with pre-emphasis and regulated output impedance in 0.13 $\mu$m CMOS," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2005).

D. Guckenberger, J. D. Schaub, K. T. Kornegay, "A dc-coupled low-power transimpedance amplifier architecture for Gb/s communication system applications," Dig. RFIC Symp. (2004) pp. 515-518.

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