Abstract

The advent of digital signal processing (DSP) to optical coherent detection means that more phase estimation options are available, compared to the earlier generation where phase-locked loops (PLLs) were invariably deployed in synchronous coherent receivers. Several phase estimation methods are numerically modeled: the maximum a posteriori (MAP) phase estimate, decision directed estimate, power law-Wiener filter estimate and power law-PLL estimate. An asynchronous coherent detection case is also modeled. The phase estimates are evaluated with respect to their tolerance of finite laser linewidth and their suitability for implementation in a parallel digital processor. Laser phase noise causes transmission system performance to be degraded by excess bit errors and cycle slips. The optimal phase estimate is the MAP estimate, and it is also included as a baseline. The power law-Wiener filter phase estimate is found to perform only marginally worse than the MAP estimate. It must be recast using a look-ahead computation to be implemented in a parallel digital processor, and the impact is investigated of the increase in the number of computations required. Differential logical detection is often used to reduce the impact of cycle slip events, and the implications of this operation on the bit error rate are studied. It is found that by choosing the correct FEC scheme differential logical detection does not increase the Q-factor penalty.

© 2009 IEEE

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  3. G. Goldfarb, G. Li, M. G. Taylor, "Orthogonal wavelength-division multiplexing using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2015-2017 (2007).
  4. K. Iwashita, N. Takachio, "Chromatic dispersion compensation in coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 367-375 (1990).
  5. M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).
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  7. S. J. Savory, A. D. Stewart, S. Wood, G. Gavioli, M. G. Taylor, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Digital equalisation of 40 Gbit/s per wavelength transmission over 2480 km of standard fibre without optical dispersion compensation," Proc. ECOC 2006 Conf. (2006).
  8. S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Transmission of 42.8 Gbit/s polarization multiplexed NRZ-QPSK over 6400 km of standard fiber with no optical dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC 2007 Conf. (2007).
  9. C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) performance of a coherent 40 Gbit/s dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) transceiver," Proc. OFC 2007 Conf. (2007).
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  13. A. Leven, N. Kaneda, N. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Inst. Elect. Eng. Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).
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  17. E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).
  18. L. G. Kazovsky, G. Kalogerakis, W.-T. Shaw, "Homodyne phase-shift-keying systems: Past challenges and future opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4876-4884 (2006).
  19. L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).
  20. P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, I. Shpantzer, "Coherent homodyne detection of BPSK signals using time-gated amplification and LiNbO$_3$ optical 90 hybrid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1727-1729 (2004).
  21. C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).
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  23. R. Epworth, J. Whiteaway, S. J. Savory, 3 Fibre I & Q Coupler U.S. patent 6859586 (2005).
  24. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2000).
  25. H. Meyr, M. Moeneclaey, S. A. Fechtel, Digital Communication Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation and Signal Processing (Wiley, 1998).
  26. U. Mengali, A. N. D'Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Plenum, 1997).
  27. K. K. Parhi, VLSI Digital Signal Processing Systems: Design and Implementation (Wiley, 1999).
  28. L. G. Kazovsky, D. A. Atlas, R. W. Smith, "Optical phase-locked PSK heterodyne experiment at 4 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 588-590 (1990).
  29. J. M. Kahn, A. H. Gnauck, J. J. Veselka, S. K. Korotky, B. L. Kasper, "4-Gb/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 285-287 (1990).
  30. S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gb/s QPSK optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 765-767 (1992).
  31. S. Watanabe, T. Chikama, T. Naito, H. Kuwahara, "560 Mbit/s optical PSK heterodyne detection using carrier recovery," Inst. Elect, Eng. Electron. Lett. 25, 588-590 (1989).
  32. L. G. Kazovsky, "Decision-driven phase-locked loop for optical homodyne receivers: Performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1238-1247 (1985).
  33. M. A. Grant, W. C. Michie, M. J. Fletcher, "The performance of optical phase-locked loops in the presence of nonnegligible loop propagation delay," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 592-597 (1987).
  34. S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, "PLL propagation delay-time influence on linewidth requirements of optical PSK homodyne detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1567-1375 (1991).
  35. S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, "Linewidth requirements for optical synchronous detection systems with nonnegligible loop delay time," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 341-349 (1992).
  36. S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, "Damping factor influence on linewidth requirements for optical PSK coherent detection systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1226-1233 (1993).
  37. A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Frequency estimation in intradyne reception," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 366-368 (2007).
  38. A. J. Viterbi, A. N. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29, 543-551 (1983).
  39. J. G. Proakis, D. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms and Applications (Prentice-Hall, 1995).
  40. K. Yonenaga, S. Aisawa, N. Takachio, K. Iwashita, "Reduction of four-wave mixing induced penalty in unequally spaced WDM transmission system by using optical DPSK," Inst. Elect. Eng. Electron. Lett. 32, 1218-1219 (1996).
  41. R. A. Griffin, A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," Proc. OFC 2002 Conf. (2002).
  42. P. Sweeney, Error Control Coding: From Theory to Practice (Wiley, 2002).
  43. Forward Error Correction for Submarine Systems (2000) ITU-T recommendation G.975.

2008

H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Exp. 16, 873-879 (2008).

2007

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, Y. Achiam, "Coherent digital polarization diversity receiver for real-time polarization-multiplexed QPSK transmission at 2.8 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1988-1990 (2007).

G. Goldfarb, G. Li, M. G. Taylor, "Orthogonal wavelength-division multiplexing using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2015-2017 (2007).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Frequency estimation in intradyne reception," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 366-368 (2007).

2006

L. G. Kazovsky, G. Kalogerakis, W.-T. Shaw, "Homodyne phase-shift-keying systems: Past challenges and future opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4876-4884 (2006).

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, N. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Inst. Elect. Eng. Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).

2005

R. Noe, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).

2004

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, I. Shpantzer, "Coherent homodyne detection of BPSK signals using time-gated amplification and LiNbO$_3$ optical 90 hybrid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1727-1729 (2004).

1996

K. Yonenaga, S. Aisawa, N. Takachio, K. Iwashita, "Reduction of four-wave mixing induced penalty in unequally spaced WDM transmission system by using optical DPSK," Inst. Elect. Eng. Electron. Lett. 32, 1218-1219 (1996).

1993

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, "Damping factor influence on linewidth requirements for optical PSK coherent detection systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1226-1233 (1993).

E. C. M. Pennings, R. J. Deri, R. Bhat, T. R. Haynes, N. C. Andreadakis, "Ultracompact, all-passive optical 90$^{\circ}$-hybrid on InP using self-imaging," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 701-703 (1993).

1992

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gb/s QPSK optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 765-767 (1992).

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, "Linewidth requirements for optical synchronous detection systems with nonnegligible loop delay time," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 341-349 (1992).

1991

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, "PLL propagation delay-time influence on linewidth requirements of optical PSK homodyne detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1567-1375 (1991).

1990

L. G. Kazovsky, D. A. Atlas, R. W. Smith, "Optical phase-locked PSK heterodyne experiment at 4 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 588-590 (1990).

J. M. Kahn, A. H. Gnauck, J. J. Veselka, S. K. Korotky, B. L. Kasper, "4-Gb/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 285-287 (1990).

K. Iwashita, N. Takachio, "Chromatic dispersion compensation in coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 367-375 (1990).

1989

S. Watanabe, T. Chikama, T. Naito, H. Kuwahara, "560 Mbit/s optical PSK heterodyne detection using carrier recovery," Inst. Elect, Eng. Electron. Lett. 25, 588-590 (1989).

L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).

1987

M. A. Grant, W. C. Michie, M. J. Fletcher, "The performance of optical phase-locked loops in the presence of nonnegligible loop propagation delay," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 592-597 (1987).

1985

L. G. Kazovsky, "Decision-driven phase-locked loop for optical homodyne receivers: Performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1238-1247 (1985).

1983

A. J. Viterbi, A. N. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29, 543-551 (1983).

J. Lightw. Technol.

L. G. Kazovsky, "Decision-driven phase-locked loop for optical homodyne receivers: Performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1238-1247 (1985).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

A. J. Viterbi, A. N. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29, 543-551 (1983).

IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett.

R. Noe, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gb/s QPSK optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 765-767 (1992).

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Frequency estimation in intradyne reception," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 366-368 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. M. Kahn, A. H. Gnauck, J. J. Veselka, S. K. Korotky, B. L. Kasper, "4-Gb/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 285-287 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. G. Kazovsky, D. A. Atlas, R. W. Smith, "Optical phase-locked PSK heterodyne experiment at 4 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 588-590 (1990).

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, I. Shpantzer, "Coherent homodyne detection of BPSK signals using time-gated amplification and LiNbO$_3$ optical 90 hybrid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1727-1729 (2004).

E. C. M. Pennings, R. J. Deri, R. Bhat, T. R. Haynes, N. C. Andreadakis, "Ultracompact, all-passive optical 90$^{\circ}$-hybrid on InP using self-imaging," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 701-703 (1993).

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, Y. Achiam, "Coherent digital polarization diversity receiver for real-time polarization-multiplexed QPSK transmission at 2.8 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1988-1990 (2007).

G. Goldfarb, G. Li, M. G. Taylor, "Orthogonal wavelength-division multiplexing using coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2015-2017 (2007).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

Inst. Elect. Eng. Electron. Lett.

K. Yonenaga, S. Aisawa, N. Takachio, K. Iwashita, "Reduction of four-wave mixing induced penalty in unequally spaced WDM transmission system by using optical DPSK," Inst. Elect. Eng. Electron. Lett. 32, 1218-1219 (1996).

Inst. Elect, Eng. Electron. Lett.

S. Watanabe, T. Chikama, T. Naito, H. Kuwahara, "560 Mbit/s optical PSK heterodyne detection using carrier recovery," Inst. Elect, Eng. Electron. Lett. 25, 588-590 (1989).

Inst. Elect. Eng. Electron. Lett.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, N. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Inst. Elect. Eng. Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, M. Salsi, O. B. Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Linear fiber impairments mitigation of 40-Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK by digital processing in a coherent receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. .

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).

M. A. Grant, W. C. Michie, M. J. Fletcher, "The performance of optical phase-locked loops in the presence of nonnegligible loop propagation delay," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 592-597 (1987).

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, "Linewidth requirements for optical synchronous detection systems with nonnegligible loop delay time," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 341-349 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol.

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, "Damping factor influence on linewidth requirements for optical PSK coherent detection systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1226-1233 (1993).

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, "PLL propagation delay-time influence on linewidth requirements of optical PSK homodyne detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1567-1375 (1991).

J. Lightw. Technol.

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).

L. G. Kazovsky, G. Kalogerakis, W.-T. Shaw, "Homodyne phase-shift-keying systems: Past challenges and future opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4876-4884 (2006).

L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. .

K. Iwashita, N. Takachio, "Chromatic dispersion compensation in coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 367-375 (1990).

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

Opt. Exp.

H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Exp. 16, 873-879 (2008).

Other

M. G. Taylor, "Accurate digital phase estimation process for coherent detection using a parallel digital processor," Proc. ECOC 2005 Conf. (2005).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).

K. Kikuchi, M. Fukase, S.-Y. Kim, "Electronic post-compensation for nonlinear phase noise in a 1000-km 20-Gbit/s optical QPSK transmission system using the homodyne receiver with digital signal processing," Proc. OFC 2007 Conf. (2007).

S. J. Savory, A. D. Stewart, S. Wood, G. Gavioli, M. G. Taylor, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Digital equalisation of 40 Gbit/s per wavelength transmission over 2480 km of standard fibre without optical dispersion compensation," Proc. ECOC 2006 Conf. (2006).

S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Transmission of 42.8 Gbit/s polarization multiplexed NRZ-QPSK over 6400 km of standard fiber with no optical dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC 2007 Conf. (2007).

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) performance of a coherent 40 Gbit/s dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) transceiver," Proc. OFC 2007 Conf. (2007).

R. Epworth, J. Whiteaway, S. J. Savory, 3 Fibre I & Q Coupler U.S. patent 6859586 (2005).

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

H. Meyr, M. Moeneclaey, S. A. Fechtel, Digital Communication Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation and Signal Processing (Wiley, 1998).

U. Mengali, A. N. D'Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Plenum, 1997).

K. K. Parhi, VLSI Digital Signal Processing Systems: Design and Implementation (Wiley, 1999).

J. G. Proakis, D. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms and Applications (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

R. A. Griffin, A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," Proc. OFC 2002 Conf. (2002).

P. Sweeney, Error Control Coding: From Theory to Practice (Wiley, 2002).

Forward Error Correction for Submarine Systems (2000) ITU-T recommendation G.975.

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