Abstract

A novel laser-reformation technique is presented for sidewall smoothing of silicon waveguides. A KrF excimer laser is used to melt and reform the sidewalls to reduce the surface roughness. Atomic-force-microscopy measurement shows that the root-mean-square (rms) roughness is reduced from 14 to 0.24 nm. The calculated scattering loss is reduced to 0.033 dB/cm. The waveguide profile after laser illumination at an incident angle of 75 $^{\circ}$ transforms to a shape of arch. The crystal quality of laser-illuminated silicon wafer characterized by microwave reflection photoconductance-decay carrier lifetimes shows 94% less damage than the furnace-treated wafer.

© 2009 IEEE

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2006

E. Z. Liang, C. J. Huang, C. F. Lin, "Use of SiO2 nanoparticles as etch mask to generate Si nanorods by reactive ion etch," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 599-603 (2006).

E. Z. Liang, T. W. Su, C. F. Lin, "Rigorous carrier dynamic model of electroluminescent metal-oxide-semiconductor silicon tunneling diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 54509-1-54509-9 (2006).

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, "Silicon photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).

2005

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2455 (2005).

2004

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).

J. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, S. Itabashi, "Oxidation-induced improvement in the sidewall morphology and cross-sectional profile of silicon wire waveguides," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2522 (2004).

2003

H. Kuribayashi, R. Hiruta, R. Shimizu, K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, "Shape transformation of silicon trenches during hydrogen annealing," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1279 (2003).

2001

A. Sakai, G. Hara, T. Baba, "Propagation characteristics of ultrahigh optical waveguide on silicon-on-insulator substrate," Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 4B, 2L383 (2001).

M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, M. Gal, "Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes," Nature 412, 805 (2001).

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction," Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).

2000

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).

1997

A. W. Stephen, M. A. Green, "Effectiveness of 0.08 molar iodine in ethanol as means of chemical surface passivation for photoconductance decay measurements," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 45, 255-265 (1997).

1994

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron. 141, J242 (1994).

F. P. Payne, J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).

1992

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. , "Measurement of surface roughness in buried channel waveguides," Electron. Lett. 28, 1321- (1992).

1986

B. C. Larson, J. Z. Tischler, D. M. Mills, "Nanosecond resolution time-resolved x-ray study of silicon during pulsed-laser irradiation," J. Mater. Res. 1, 144-154 (1986).

1980

G. Yaron, L. D. Hess, "LASOS laser annealed silicon on sapphire," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 573-578 (1980).

1969

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of dielectric slab waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187 (1969).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of dielectric slab waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187 (1969).

Electron. Lett.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. , "Measurement of surface roughness in buried channel waveguides," Electron. Lett. 28, 1321- (1992).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1661-1663 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

G. Yaron, L. D. Hess, "LASOS laser annealed silicon on sapphire," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 573-578 (1980).

J. Lightw. Technol.

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, "Silicon photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).

J. Mater. Res.

B. C. Larson, J. Z. Tischler, D. M. Mills, "Nanosecond resolution time-resolved x-ray study of silicon during pulsed-laser irradiation," J. Mater. Res. 1, 144-154 (1986).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

E. Z. Liang, C. J. Huang, C. F. Lin, "Use of SiO2 nanoparticles as etch mask to generate Si nanorods by reactive ion etch," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 599-603 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys.

E. Z. Liang, T. W. Su, C. F. Lin, "Rigorous carrier dynamic model of electroluminescent metal-oxide-semiconductor silicon tunneling diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 54509-1-54509-9 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2455 (2005).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

H. Kuribayashi, R. Hiruta, R. Shimizu, K. Sudoh, H. Iwasaki, "Shape transformation of silicon trenches during hydrogen annealing," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1279 (2003).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

J. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, S. Itabashi, "Oxidation-induced improvement in the sidewall morphology and cross-sectional profile of silicon wire waveguides," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 2522 (2004).

Japan. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, T. Baba, "Propagation characteristics of ultrahigh optical waveguide on silicon-on-insulator substrate," Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 4B, 2L383 (2001).

Nature

M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. J. Reece, M. Gal, "Efficient silicon light-emitting diodes," Nature 412, 805 (2001).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

F. P. Payne, J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994).

Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron. 141, J242 (1994).

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells

A. W. Stephen, M. A. Green, "Effectiveness of 0.08 molar iodine in ethanol as means of chemical surface passivation for photoconductance decay measurements," Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 45, 255-265 (1997).

Other

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Low-loss photonic wires and compact ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. LEOS Benelux Annu. Symp. 2003 (2003).

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Fabrication and evaluation of submicron-square Si wire waveguides with spot-size converters," LEOS Annu. Meeting GlasgowU.K. (2002) Paper TuU2 p. 287.

M. C. Ferrara, M. R. Perrone, M. L. Protopapa, J. Sancho-Parramon, S. Bosch, S. Mazzarelli, "High mechanical damage resistant sol-gel coating for high power lasers," Proc. SPIE (2004) pp. 537-545.

K. A. Reihardt, S. M. Kelso, "The use of beam profile reflectometry to determine depth of silicon etch damage and contamination," Proc. SPIE (1995) pp. 147-158.

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