Abstract

We investigate in detail the process of CO$_{2}$-laser writing of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) in unannealed and annealed boron-doped fiber samples by using repeated scanning of CO$_{2}$-laser pulses. We find that the writing dynamics depends strongly on the CO$_{2}$-laser energy density and the annealing temperature of the fiber. Our results from analyzing the writing dynamics reveal the relative importance of various physical effects arising from glass structure changes due to different writing conditions and thus provide a better understanding of the formation and the properties of CO$_{2}$-laser written LPFGs.

© 2009 IEEE

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2008 (1)

H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, "Writing of long-period gratings in conventional and photonic-crystal polarization-maintaining fibers by CO$_{2}$-laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132-134 (2008).

2007 (2)

R. Slavik, "Coupling to circularly asymmetric modes via long-period gratings made in a standard straight fiber," Opt. Commun. 275, 90-93 (2007).

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Light coupling between two parallel CO$_{2}$-laser written long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 15, 17645-17651 (2007).

2006 (3)

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, A. I. Dachevski, "Residual stress profiles in optical fibers determined by the two-waveplate-compensator method," Opt. Commun. 265, 29-32 (2006).

G. Rego, O. V. Ivanov, P. V. S. Marques, "Demonstration of coupling to symmetric and antisymmetric cladding modes in arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 9594-9599 (2006).

V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, "Fabrication of axially symmetric long-period fiber gratings with a carbon dioxide laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2298 (2006).

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelength of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

2003 (3)

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on the long-period fiber grating written by high-frequency CO$_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

H. S. Ryu, Y. Park, S. T. Oh, Y. Chung, D. Y. Kim, "Effect of asymmetric stress relaxation on the polarization-dependent transmission characteristics of a CO$_{2}$ laser-written long-period fiber grating," Opt. Lett. 28, 155-157 (2003).

2001 (3)

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, V. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings using an electric arc," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1574-1579 (2001).

D. L. Kim, M. Tomozawa, S. Dubois, G. Orcel, "Fictive temperature measurement of single-mode optical-fiber core and cladding," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1155-1158 (2001).

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W. T. Han, "Residual stress relaxation in the core of optical fiber by CO$_{2}$ laser radiation," Opt. Lett. 26, 1657-1659 (2001).

2000 (2)

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO$_{2}$-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36, 1354-1355 (2000).

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO$_{2}$ laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

1990 (1)

Y. Mohanna, J. M. Saugrain, J. C. Rousseau, P. Ledoux, "Relaxation of internal stresses in optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1799-1802 (1990).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO$_{2}$ laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO$_{2}$-laser-induced long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36, 1354-1355 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, "Fabrication of axially symmetric long-period fiber gratings with a carbon dioxide laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2298 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, "Writing of long-period gratings in conventional and photonic-crystal polarization-maintaining fibers by CO$_{2}$-laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132-134 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, V. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings using an electric arc," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1574-1579 (2001).

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on the long-period fiber grating written by high-frequency CO$_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

Y. Mohanna, J. M. Saugrain, J. C. Rousseau, P. Ledoux, "Relaxation of internal stresses in optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1799-1802 (1990).

D. L. Kim, M. Tomozawa, S. Dubois, G. Orcel, "Fictive temperature measurement of single-mode optical-fiber core and cladding," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1155-1158 (2001).

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelength of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. Slavik, "Coupling to circularly asymmetric modes via long-period gratings made in a standard straight fiber," Opt. Commun. 275, 90-93 (2007).

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, A. I. Dachevski, "Residual stress profiles in optical fibers determined by the two-waveplate-compensator method," Opt. Commun. 265, 29-32 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).

Opt. Exp. (2)

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Light coupling between two parallel CO$_{2}$-laser written long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 15, 17645-17651 (2007).

G. Rego, O. V. Ivanov, P. V. S. Marques, "Demonstration of coupling to symmetric and antisymmetric cladding modes in arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 9594-9599 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses (Academic, 1994).

K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, "Long-period gratings for application in optical communications," Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2nd Int. Symp. Adv. Trends in Fiber Opt. Appl. (ICOCN/ATFO 2006) (2006) pp. 128-133.

K. Morishita, A. Kaino, "Residual stress effects on post-fabrication resonance wavelength trimming of long-period fiber gratings," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. CD-ROM (2007).

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