Abstract

We develop an adjustment-free differential-phase demodulator based on a delay-interferometer (DI) made of a 3$\,\times\,$3 optical coupler, which is used as a 120-degree optical hybrid, and demonstrate the possibility of using it as a phasor monitor for the multilevel differential phase-shift keyed (DxPSK) signal. The key features of the proposed demodulator are twofold: (a) in-phase and quadrature (I-Q) components and the phasor diagram can be obtained only by using a single DI, and (b) the phase delay of the DI can be derived from the output power of the DI without the knowledge of the signal under test. These features enable us to demodulate the I-Q components of DxPSK signals without any adjustments. We formulate a theoretical model for deriving the differential phasor from the output signals of the 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler regardless of unbalances in the phase retardations and the splitting ratios of the 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler. Thus, the discrepancy from the ideal 120-degree optical hybrid is not a problem, and hence the requirements of the 3$\,\times\,$3 couplers are greatly relaxed. For a demonstration, we implement the proposed demodulator by using a fiber Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors and use it as a differential phasor monitor capable of the plug-and-play (wavelength- and polarization-independent) operation. We show that this phasor monitor can be used for diagnosis of differential phase-shift keyed (DPSK) and differential quadrature phase-shift keyed (DQPSK) transmitters by identifying the sources of impairments from the measured constellation diagram and phasor trajectories. The proposed phasor monitor can also be used for monitoring the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of DPSK signal.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
  2. J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).
  3. N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, "1.14 b/s/Hz spectrally efficient 50$\,\times\,$85.4-Gb/s transmission over 300 km using copolarized RZ-DQPSK signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 108-114 (2005).
  4. P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhi, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, "2000-km WDM transmission of 10$\,\times\,$107-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK," Proc. ECOC2006 CannesFrance (2006) paper Th 4.1.3.
  5. S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, E. C. Burrows, L. L. Buhi, "Hybrid 107-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK and 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK transmission at 1.4-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1280 km of SSMF and 4 bandwidth-managed ROADMs," Proc. ECOC2007 (2007).
  6. A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. Winzer, C. Doerr, J. Centanni, E. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s C$+$L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," Tech. Dig. OFC/NFOEC2007 (2007).
  7. H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, "20.4-Tb/s (204$\,\times\,$111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs," Tech. Digest OFC/NFOEC2007 (2007).
  8. D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Goowald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmissison over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).
  9. C. R. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "10$\,\times\,$111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation," Tech. Dig. OFC/NFOEC2007 (2007).
  10. N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Multilevel signaling for high-speed optical transmission," ECOC 2006 CannesFrance (2006) paper Tu.3.2.1.
  11. N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Modulation/demodulation schemes for optical multi-level transmission," Tech. Dig. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  12. N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "First experimental demonstration of single-polarization 50-Gbit/s 32-level (QASK and 8-DPSK) incoherent optical multilevel transmission," Tech. Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  13. C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical souces using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).
  14. C. Dorrer, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, "Investigation of 42.7-Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals using linear optical sampling," Tech. Dig. CLEO/QELS 2005 (2005) pp. 606-608.
  15. C. Dorrer, "Single-shot measurement of the electric field of optical sources using time magnification and heterodyning," Tech. Dig. CLEO/QELS 2006 (2006).
  16. K. Tanimura, H. Ohta, "Measurement of phase-distribution of phase-modulated optical signals using delayed self-homodyne detection," Proc. ECOC 2006 CannesFrance (2006) paper Mo.4.2.3.
  17. P. J. Winzer, H. Kim, "Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).
  18. K.-P. Ho, "The effect of interferometer phase error on direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 308-310 (2004).
  19. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1887-1891 (2003).
  20. W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, J. P. King, S. Wright, "Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 561-572 (1987).
  21. S. Yamashita, "Two-branch double-stage phase-diversity (DSPD) coherent receiver using a 3$\,\times\,$3 fiber coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1386-1388 (1994).
  22. S. K. Sheem, "Optical fiber interferometers with [3$\,\times\,$3] directional couplers: Analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3865-3872 (1981).
  23. R. G. Priest, "Analysis of fiber interferometer utilizing 3$\,\times\,$3 fiber coupler," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1589-1591 (1982).
  24. Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, Y. C. Chung, "Plug-and-play phasor monitor for DxPSK signals based on single delay-interferometer using a 3$\,\times\,$3 optical coupler," Tech. Dig. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).
  25. D. N. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-28, 1867-1875 (1980).
  26. A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-29, 543-551 (1983).
  27. D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift-keying signal with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).
  28. F. Mohr, "Thermooptically induced bias drift in fiber optical sagnac interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 27-41 (1996).
  29. Y. Takushima, S. Yamashita, K. Kikuchi, K. Hotate, "Polarization-stable and single-frequency fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 661-668 (1998).
  30. P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4$\,\times\,$100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656-658 (2004).
  31. C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, S. Chandrasekhar, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, A. L. Adamiecki, "Monolithic InP DQPSK 53.5-Gb/s receiver," ECOC 2007 BerlinGermany (2007) paper PD 2.9.
  32. S. Tsukamoto, Y. Ishikawa, K. Kikuchi, "Optical homodyne receiver comprising phase and polarization diversities with digital signal processing," ECOC2006 CannesFrance (2006) paper Mo.4.2.1.

2007 (1)

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Goowald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmissison over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).

2006 (1)

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift-keying signal with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

2005 (3)

N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, "1.14 b/s/Hz spectrally efficient 50$\,\times\,$85.4-Gb/s transmission over 300 km using copolarized RZ-DQPSK signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 108-114 (2005).

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical souces using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

K.-P. Ho, "The effect of interferometer phase error on direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 308-310 (2004).

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4$\,\times\,$100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656-658 (2004).

2003 (2)

H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1887-1891 (2003).

P. J. Winzer, H. Kim, "Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).

1998 (1)

Y. Takushima, S. Yamashita, K. Kikuchi, K. Hotate, "Polarization-stable and single-frequency fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 661-668 (1998).

1996 (1)

F. Mohr, "Thermooptically induced bias drift in fiber optical sagnac interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 27-41 (1996).

1994 (1)

S. Yamashita, "Two-branch double-stage phase-diversity (DSPD) coherent receiver using a 3$\,\times\,$3 fiber coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1386-1388 (1994).

1987 (1)

W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, J. P. King, S. Wright, "Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 561-572 (1987).

1983 (1)

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-29, 543-551 (1983).

1982 (1)

R. G. Priest, "Analysis of fiber interferometer utilizing 3$\,\times\,$3 fiber coupler," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1589-1591 (1982).

1981 (1)

S. K. Sheem, "Optical fiber interferometers with [3$\,\times\,$3] directional couplers: Analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3865-3872 (1981).

1980 (1)

D. N. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-28, 1867-1875 (1980).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-29, 543-551 (1983).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

R. G. Priest, "Analysis of fiber interferometer utilizing 3$\,\times\,$3 fiber coupler," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1589-1591 (1982).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 259-272 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K.-P. Ho, "The effect of interferometer phase error on direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 308-310 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

P. J. Winzer, H. Kim, "Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).

S. Yamashita, "Two-branch double-stage phase-diversity (DSPD) coherent receiver using a 3$\,\times\,$3 fiber coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1386-1388 (1994).

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4$\,\times\,$100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656-658 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

D. N. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-28, 1867-1875 (1980).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, J. P. King, S. Wright, "Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 561-572 (1987).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. K. Sheem, "Optical fiber interferometers with [3$\,\times\,$3] directional couplers: Analysis," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3865-3872 (1981).

J. Lightw. Technol. (8)

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift-keying signal with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

F. Mohr, "Thermooptically induced bias drift in fiber optical sagnac interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 27-41 (1996).

Y. Takushima, S. Yamashita, K. Kikuchi, K. Hotate, "Polarization-stable and single-frequency fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 661-668 (1998).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1887-1891 (2003).

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical souces using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).

N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, "1.14 b/s/Hz spectrally efficient 50$\,\times\,$85.4-Gb/s transmission over 300 km using copolarized RZ-DQPSK signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 108-114 (2005).

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Goowald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmissison over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).

Other (14)

C. R. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "10$\,\times\,$111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation," Tech. Dig. OFC/NFOEC2007 (2007).

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Multilevel signaling for high-speed optical transmission," ECOC 2006 CannesFrance (2006) paper Tu.3.2.1.

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Modulation/demodulation schemes for optical multi-level transmission," Tech. Dig. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

N. Kikuchi, K. Mandai, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "First experimental demonstration of single-polarization 50-Gbit/s 32-level (QASK and 8-DPSK) incoherent optical multilevel transmission," Tech. Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhi, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, "2000-km WDM transmission of 10$\,\times\,$107-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK," Proc. ECOC2006 CannesFrance (2006) paper Th 4.1.3.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, E. C. Burrows, L. L. Buhi, "Hybrid 107-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK and 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK transmission at 1.4-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1280 km of SSMF and 4 bandwidth-managed ROADMs," Proc. ECOC2007 (2007).

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. Winzer, C. Doerr, J. Centanni, E. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s C$+$L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," Tech. Dig. OFC/NFOEC2007 (2007).

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, "20.4-Tb/s (204$\,\times\,$111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs," Tech. Digest OFC/NFOEC2007 (2007).

C. Dorrer, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, "Investigation of 42.7-Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals using linear optical sampling," Tech. Dig. CLEO/QELS 2005 (2005) pp. 606-608.

C. Dorrer, "Single-shot measurement of the electric field of optical sources using time magnification and heterodyning," Tech. Dig. CLEO/QELS 2006 (2006).

K. Tanimura, H. Ohta, "Measurement of phase-distribution of phase-modulated optical signals using delayed self-homodyne detection," Proc. ECOC 2006 CannesFrance (2006) paper Mo.4.2.3.

Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, Y. C. Chung, "Plug-and-play phasor monitor for DxPSK signals based on single delay-interferometer using a 3$\,\times\,$3 optical coupler," Tech. Dig. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, S. Chandrasekhar, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, A. L. Adamiecki, "Monolithic InP DQPSK 53.5-Gb/s receiver," ECOC 2007 BerlinGermany (2007) paper PD 2.9.

S. Tsukamoto, Y. Ishikawa, K. Kikuchi, "Optical homodyne receiver comprising phase and polarization diversities with digital signal processing," ECOC2006 CannesFrance (2006) paper Mo.4.2.1.

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