Abstract

We demonstrate extended flat gain bandwidth by combining Raman and parametric processes. The increase in bandwidth is accomplished by extending the Raman gain region to the longer wavelength side of the Raman gain by using parametric gain. Two different configurations of the amplifier are investigated. The associated gain and bit error performance is characterized. A gain of about 15 dB, with gain flatness of 5 dB is measured.

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  1. S. Namiki, Y. Emori, "Ultra broadband Raman amplifiers pumped and gain equalized by wavelength division multiplexed high power laser diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 7, 3-16 () 200.
  2. T. N. Nielsen, A. J. Stentz, K. Rottwitt, D. S. Vengsarkar, Z. J. Chenl, P. B. Hansen, J. H. Park, K. S. Feder, T. A. Strasser, S. Cabot, S. Stulzz, D. W. Peckham, L. Hsu, C. K. Kan, A. F. Judy, J. Sulhoff, S. Y. Park, L. E. Nelson, L. Gruner-Nielsen, "3.28-Tb/s (82 $\times$ 40 Gb/s) transmission over 3 $\times$ 100 km non-zero dispersion fiber using dual C- and L-band hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped inline amplifiers," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2000) pp. 236-238.
  3. L. D. Garrett, M. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, V. Dominic, R. Waarts, D. Giltner, D. Mehuys, "Field demonstration of distributed Raman amplification with 3.8-dB Q-improvement for 5 120-km transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 157-159 (2001).
  4. S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, H. S. Chung, M. J. Chu, "Transient effects and gain-control method in low-noise dispersion-compensating hybrid fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 906-908 (2003).
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  9. H. S. Seo, Y. G. Choi, B. J. Park, D. H. Cho, K. H. Kim, "Simultaneous amplification by Er-ions and SRS in a Er-doped germaNo-silica fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1198-1200 (2003).
  10. Y. Kurosawa, N. Takeda, T. Kawazawa, H. Taga, K. Goto, "Raman assisted EDF amplifier using 1460 nm pump wavelength for C-band transmission with long repeater span," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) RiminiItaly (2003) Paper Tu3.2.5.
  11. J. Chen, X. Liu, C. Lu, "Design of multistage gain-flattened fiber raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 935-944 (2006).
  12. E. Golovchenko, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, E. M. Dianov, "Mutual influence of the parametric effects and stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1815-1820 (1990).
  13. A. S. Y. Hsieh, S. G. Murdoch, S. Coen, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, "Influence of Raman susceptibility on parametric amplification in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 521-523 (2007).
  14. J. F. L. Freitas, M. B. Costa e Silva, S. R. Luthi, A. S. L. Gomes, "Raman enhanced parametric amplifier based S-C band wavelength converter: Experiment and simulations," Opt. Commun. 255, 314-318 (2005).
  15. M. F. Arend, M. A. Ummy, L. Leng, R. Dorsinville, "Extending the gain bandwidth of combined Raman-parametric fiber amplifiers using highly Nonlinear fiber," Proc. SPIE Vol. 6455, Nonlinear Frequency Generation and Conversion: Materials, Devices, and Applications VI (2007) Paper 6455-20 Ed: P. E. Powers.
  16. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics .
  17. Y. Akasaka, K. K. Y. Wong, M.-C. Ho, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, "Novel S-band amplification and wavelength conversion technique using dual nonlinear phenomena," OFC AnaheimCA (2001) Paper WDD31-2 2001.
  18. R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, P. Kumar, "Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: Experimental investigation," Opt. Lett. 29, 2372-2374 (2004).
  19. P. L. Voss, R. Tang, P. Kumar, "Measurement of the photon statistics and the Noise figure of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 28, 549-551 (2003).
  20. K. K. Y. Wong, K. Shimizu, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka, G. Kalogerakis, L. G. Kazovsky, "Continuous-wave fiber optical parametric wavelength converter with 140-dB conversion efficiency and a 3.8-dB Noise figure," Opt. Lett. 28, 692-694 (2003).
  21. J. L. Blows, S. E. French, "Low-noise-figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump," Opt. Lett. 27, 491-493 (2002).
  22. M. Horowitz, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, "Broad-band transmitted intensity noise induced by Stokes and antiStokes Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 124-126 (1997).
  23. D. Marcuse, "Calculation of bit-error probability for a lightwave system with optical amplifiers and post-detection Gaussian noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 505-513 (1991).
  24. H. K. Y. Cheung, K. K. Y. Young, N. Wong, M. E. Marhic, SPIE Photonics West"Gain optimization of Raman mediated fiber optical parametric amplifiers," SPIE (2006) Paper 6103-28.
  25. D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, "Raman assisted fiber optic parametric amplifier and wavelength converter in highly Nonlinear fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 1901-1904 (2002).

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Chen, X. Liu, C. Lu, "Design of multistage gain-flattened fiber raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 935-944 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. F. L. Freitas, M. B. Costa e Silva, S. R. Luthi, A. S. L. Gomes, "Raman enhanced parametric amplifier based S-C band wavelength converter: Experiment and simulations," Opt. Commun. 255, 314-318 (2005).

2004 (1)

R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, P. Kumar, "Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: Experimental investigation," Opt. Lett. 29, 2372-2374 (2004).

2003 (4)

P. L. Voss, R. Tang, P. Kumar, "Measurement of the photon statistics and the Noise figure of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 28, 549-551 (2003).

K. K. Y. Wong, K. Shimizu, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka, G. Kalogerakis, L. G. Kazovsky, "Continuous-wave fiber optical parametric wavelength converter with 140-dB conversion efficiency and a 3.8-dB Noise figure," Opt. Lett. 28, 692-694 (2003).

H. S. Seo, Y. G. Choi, B. J. Park, D. H. Cho, K. H. Kim, "Simultaneous amplification by Er-ions and SRS in a Er-doped germaNo-silica fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1198-1200 (2003).

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, H. S. Chung, M. J. Chu, "Transient effects and gain-control method in low-noise dispersion-compensating hybrid fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 906-908 (2003).

2002 (2)

J. L. Blows, S. E. French, "Low-noise-figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump," Opt. Lett. 27, 491-493 (2002).

D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, "Raman assisted fiber optic parametric amplifier and wavelength converter in highly Nonlinear fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 1901-1904 (2002).

2001 (3)

M. C. Ho, K. Uesaka, M. E. Marhic, Y. Akasaka, L. G. Kazovsky, "200-nm-bandwidth fiber optical amplifier combining parametric and Raman gain," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 977-981 (2001).

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194-196 (2001).

L. D. Garrett, M. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, V. Dominic, R. Waarts, D. Giltner, D. Mehuys, "Field demonstration of distributed Raman amplification with 3.8-dB Q-improvement for 5 120-km transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 157-159 (2001).

1997 (1)

M. Horowitz, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, "Broad-band transmitted intensity noise induced by Stokes and antiStokes Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 124-126 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. Altuncu, A. S. Siddiqui, A. Ellis, M. A. Newhouse, A. J. Antos, "Gain and noise figure characterization of a 68 km long distributed erbium doped fiber amplifier," Electron. Lett. 32, 1800-1801 (1996).

1991 (2)

G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single mode fibers: Exact solutions and spatial instability effects," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 8, 824-838 (1991).

D. Marcuse, "Calculation of bit-error probability for a lightwave system with optical amplifiers and post-detection Gaussian noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 505-513 (1991).

1990 (1)

E. Golovchenko, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, E. M. Dianov, "Mutual influence of the parametric effects and stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1815-1820 (1990).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Altuncu, A. S. Siddiqui, A. Ellis, M. A. Newhouse, A. J. Antos, "Gain and noise figure characterization of a 68 km long distributed erbium doped fiber amplifier," Electron. Lett. 32, 1800-1801 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. S. Seo, Y. G. Choi, B. J. Park, D. H. Cho, K. H. Kim, "Simultaneous amplification by Er-ions and SRS in a Er-doped germaNo-silica fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1198-1200 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Golovchenko, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, E. M. Dianov, "Mutual influence of the parametric effects and stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1815-1820 (1990).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. (1)

S. Namiki, Y. Emori, "Ultra broadband Raman amplifiers pumped and gain equalized by wavelength division multiplexed high power laser diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 7, 3-16 () 200.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

L. D. Garrett, M. Eiselt, R. W. Tkach, V. Dominic, R. Waarts, D. Giltner, D. Mehuys, "Field demonstration of distributed Raman amplification with 3.8-dB Q-improvement for 5 120-km transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 157-159 (2001).

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, H. S. Chung, M. J. Chu, "Transient effects and gain-control method in low-noise dispersion-compensating hybrid fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 906-908 (2003).

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, "Broad-band continuous-wave-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier with 49-dB gain and wavelength-conversion efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 194-196 (2001).

M. Horowitz, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, "Broad-band transmitted intensity noise induced by Stokes and antiStokes Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 124-126 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. C. Ho, K. Uesaka, M. E. Marhic, Y. Akasaka, L. G. Kazovsky, "200-nm-bandwidth fiber optical amplifier combining parametric and Raman gain," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 977-981 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

D. Marcuse, "Calculation of bit-error probability for a lightwave system with optical amplifiers and post-detection Gaussian noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 505-513 (1991).

J. Chen, X. Liu, C. Lu, "Design of multistage gain-flattened fiber raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 935-944 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, "Raman assisted fiber optic parametric amplifier and wavelength converter in highly Nonlinear fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 1901-1904 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single mode fibers: Exact solutions and spatial instability effects," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 8, 824-838 (1991).

Opt. Lett. (2)

R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, P. Kumar, "Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: Experimental investigation," Opt. Lett. 29, 2372-2374 (2004).

P. L. Voss, R. Tang, P. Kumar, "Measurement of the photon statistics and the Noise figure of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 28, 549-551 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. F. L. Freitas, M. B. Costa e Silva, S. R. Luthi, A. S. L. Gomes, "Raman enhanced parametric amplifier based S-C band wavelength converter: Experiment and simulations," Opt. Commun. 255, 314-318 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (6)

H. K. Y. Cheung, K. K. Y. Young, N. Wong, M. E. Marhic, SPIE Photonics West"Gain optimization of Raman mediated fiber optical parametric amplifiers," SPIE (2006) Paper 6103-28.

M. F. Arend, M. A. Ummy, L. Leng, R. Dorsinville, "Extending the gain bandwidth of combined Raman-parametric fiber amplifiers using highly Nonlinear fiber," Proc. SPIE Vol. 6455, Nonlinear Frequency Generation and Conversion: Materials, Devices, and Applications VI (2007) Paper 6455-20 Ed: P. E. Powers.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics .

Y. Akasaka, K. K. Y. Wong, M.-C. Ho, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, "Novel S-band amplification and wavelength conversion technique using dual nonlinear phenomena," OFC AnaheimCA (2001) Paper WDD31-2 2001.

T. N. Nielsen, A. J. Stentz, K. Rottwitt, D. S. Vengsarkar, Z. J. Chenl, P. B. Hansen, J. H. Park, K. S. Feder, T. A. Strasser, S. Cabot, S. Stulzz, D. W. Peckham, L. Hsu, C. K. Kan, A. F. Judy, J. Sulhoff, S. Y. Park, L. E. Nelson, L. Gruner-Nielsen, "3.28-Tb/s (82 $\times$ 40 Gb/s) transmission over 3 $\times$ 100 km non-zero dispersion fiber using dual C- and L-band hybrid Raman/Erbium-doped inline amplifiers," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2000) pp. 236-238.

Y. Kurosawa, N. Takeda, T. Kawazawa, H. Taga, K. Goto, "Raman assisted EDF amplifier using 1460 nm pump wavelength for C-band transmission with long repeater span," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) RiminiItaly (2003) Paper Tu3.2.5.

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