Abstract

A method for the functionalization of surfaces within soft glass microstructured optical fibers has been developed, using self assembled monolayers (SAMs) of silane coupling agents. We demonstrate the use of measurements of the fiber capillary fill rate, as a positive test for a functionalized internal surface. A simple theoretical model is used for comparison with measured fill rates. During this work, adsorption kinetics for SAMs of octadecyltrichlororsilane onto lead silicate glass has been investigated. This work is a critically important first step for a plethora of applications in biophotonics, chemical fiber sensing as well offering promise for protecting fiber glass from degradation.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
  2. T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Progress in microstructured optical fibers," Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 36, 467-495 (2006).
  3. J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Kolkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions," Opt. Lett. 29, 1974-1976 (2004).
  4. J. B. Jensen, P. E. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. H. Pedersen, A. Bjarklev, "Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 5883-5889 (2005).
  5. T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
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  7. D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, Jr.B. Bendow, "Heavy metal fluoride glasses and fibers: A review," J. Lightw. Tecnol. 2, 566-586 (1984).
  8. A. F. Kosolapov, S. L. Semjonov, A. N. Denisov, "Mechanical properties of high-purity silica microstructured optical fiber," Inorg. Mater. 43, 310-314 (2007).
  9. J. D. Le Grange, J. L. Markham, "Effects of surface hydration on the deposition of silane monolayers on silica," Langmuir 9, 1749-1753 (1993).
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  12. R. Maoz, J. Sagiv, "On the formation of self-assembling monolayers (I)," J. Colloid Interfac. Sci. 100, 465-496 (1984).
  13. S. R. Wasserman, G. M. Whitesides, I. M. Tidswell, B. M. Ocko, P. S. Pershan, J. D. Axe, "The structure of self-assembled monolayers of alkylsiloxanes on silicon: A comparison of results from ellipsometry and low-angle x-ray reflectivity," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 111, 5852-5861 (1989).
  14. S. S. Cheng, D. A. Scherson, C. N. Sukenik, "In situ observation of monolayer self-assembly by FTIR-ATR," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 114, 5436-5437 (1992).
  15. D. L. Angst, G. W. Simmons, "Moisture absorption characteristics of organosiloxane self-assembled monolayers," Langmuir 7, 2236-2242 (1991).
  16. R. Banga, J. Yarwood, A. M. Morgan, B. Evans, J. Kells, "FTIR and AFM studies of the kinetics and self-assembly of alkyltrichlorosilanes and (perofluroalkyl)trichlorosilanes onto glass and silicon," Langmuir 11, 4393-4399 (1995).
  17. R. Banga, J. Yarwood, A. M. Morgan, "Determination of the ordering of alkylhalogensilanes on a silicon substrate using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy," Langmuir 11, 618-622 (1995).
  18. T. M. Monro, Y. Ruan, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T.-C. Foo, P. Hoffmann, R. C. Moore, "Antibody immobilization within glass microstructured fibers: A route to sensitive and selective biosensors," Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. (OFS'2008) PerthAustralia (2008).
  19. S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Afshar, T. M. Monro, "Theoretical study of side access and thin-layer fluorescence-based optical-fibre sensors with sub-wavelength features," Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. (OFS'2008) PerthAustralia (2008).
  20. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, "Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 15086-15092 (2007).
  21. J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. H. V. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. C. Moore, V. Finazzi, K. E. Frampton, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, "High-nonlinearity dispersion-shifted lead-silicate holey fibers for efficient 1- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ pumped supercontinuum generation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 183-190 (2006).
  22. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, T. M. Monro, "Heavy metal oxide glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity," Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. (OFS'2008) AnaheimCA (2005) paper OThA3.
  23. P. Silberzan, L. Léger, D. Ausserré, J. J. Benattar, "Silanation of silica surfaces. A new method of constructing pure or mixed monolayers," Langmuir 7, 1647-1651 (1991).
  24. E. P. Plueddemann, Silane Coupling Agents (Plenum Press, 1991).
  25. K. M. R. Kallury, M. Thompson, C. P. Tripp, M. L. Hair, "Interaction of silicon surfaces silanized with octadecylchlorosilane with octadecanoic acid and octadecanamine studied by ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Langmuir 8, 947-954 (1992).
  26. A. Baptiste, A. Gibaud, J. F. Bardeau, K. Wen, R. Maoz, J. Sagiv, B. M. Ocko, "X-ray, micro-Raman, and infrared spectroscopy structural characterization of self-assembled multilayer silane films with variable numbers of stacked layers," Langmuir 18, 3916-3922 (2002).
  27. R. Maoz, J. Sagiv, D. Degenhardt, H. Möhwald, P. Quint, "Hydrogen bonded multilayers of self-assembling silanes: Structure elucidation by combined FTIR spectroscopy and x-ray scattering techniques," Supramol. Sci. 2, 9-24 (1995).
  28. S. Afshar, V. S. C. Warren-Smith, T. M. Monro, "Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres," Opt. Exp. 15, 17891-17901 (2007).
  29. E. W. Washburn, "The dynamics of capillary flow," Phys. Rev. 17, 273-283 (1921).
  30. J. S. Quinton, The oscillatory adsorption of organofunctional silanes on metal oxide surfaces Ph.D. dissertation Univ. NewcastleNewcastleU.K. (2000).
  31. L. Houssiau, P. Bertrand, "ToF-SIMS study of organosilane self-assembly on aluminium surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 351-356 (2001).
  32. L. Houssiau, P. Bertrand, "ToF-SIMS study of organosilane adsorption on model hydroxyl terminated surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 203–204, 580-585 (2003).
  33. J. A. Dean, Lange's Handbook of Chemistry (McGraw-Hill, 1967).
  34. L. B. Loeb, The Kinetic Theory of Gases (Dover, 2004) pp. 281-285.

2007 (3)

A. F. Kosolapov, S. L. Semjonov, A. N. Denisov, "Mechanical properties of high-purity silica microstructured optical fiber," Inorg. Mater. 43, 310-314 (2007).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, "Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 15086-15092 (2007).

S. Afshar, V. S. C. Warren-Smith, T. M. Monro, "Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres," Opt. Exp. 15, 17891-17901 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. H. V. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. C. Moore, V. Finazzi, K. E. Frampton, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, "High-nonlinearity dispersion-shifted lead-silicate holey fibers for efficient 1- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ pumped supercontinuum generation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 183-190 (2006).

T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Progress in microstructured optical fibers," Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 36, 467-495 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. B. Jensen, P. E. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. H. Pedersen, A. Bjarklev, "Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 5883-5889 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

L. Houssiau, P. Bertrand, "ToF-SIMS study of organosilane adsorption on model hydroxyl terminated surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 203–204, 580-585 (2003).

2002 (1)

A. Baptiste, A. Gibaud, J. F. Bardeau, K. Wen, R. Maoz, J. Sagiv, B. M. Ocko, "X-ray, micro-Raman, and infrared spectroscopy structural characterization of self-assembled multilayer silane films with variable numbers of stacked layers," Langmuir 18, 3916-3922 (2002).

2001 (2)

L. Houssiau, P. Bertrand, "ToF-SIMS study of organosilane self-assembly on aluminium surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 351-356 (2001).

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).

1996 (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

1995 (3)

R. Banga, J. Yarwood, A. M. Morgan, B. Evans, J. Kells, "FTIR and AFM studies of the kinetics and self-assembly of alkyltrichlorosilanes and (perofluroalkyl)trichlorosilanes onto glass and silicon," Langmuir 11, 4393-4399 (1995).

R. Banga, J. Yarwood, A. M. Morgan, "Determination of the ordering of alkylhalogensilanes on a silicon substrate using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy," Langmuir 11, 618-622 (1995).

R. Maoz, J. Sagiv, D. Degenhardt, H. Möhwald, P. Quint, "Hydrogen bonded multilayers of self-assembling silanes: Structure elucidation by combined FTIR spectroscopy and x-ray scattering techniques," Supramol. Sci. 2, 9-24 (1995).

1993 (1)

J. D. Le Grange, J. L. Markham, "Effects of surface hydration on the deposition of silane monolayers on silica," Langmuir 9, 1749-1753 (1993).

1992 (2)

S. S. Cheng, D. A. Scherson, C. N. Sukenik, "In situ observation of monolayer self-assembly by FTIR-ATR," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 114, 5436-5437 (1992).

K. M. R. Kallury, M. Thompson, C. P. Tripp, M. L. Hair, "Interaction of silicon surfaces silanized with octadecylchlorosilane with octadecanoic acid and octadecanamine studied by ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Langmuir 8, 947-954 (1992).

1991 (2)

D. L. Angst, G. W. Simmons, "Moisture absorption characteristics of organosiloxane self-assembled monolayers," Langmuir 7, 2236-2242 (1991).

P. Silberzan, L. Léger, D. Ausserré, J. J. Benattar, "Silanation of silica surfaces. A new method of constructing pure or mixed monolayers," Langmuir 7, 1647-1651 (1991).

1989 (1)

S. R. Wasserman, G. M. Whitesides, I. M. Tidswell, B. M. Ocko, P. S. Pershan, J. D. Axe, "The structure of self-assembled monolayers of alkylsiloxanes on silicon: A comparison of results from ellipsometry and low-angle x-ray reflectivity," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 111, 5852-5861 (1989).

1986 (1)

J. Gun, J. Sagiv, "On the formation of self-assembling monolayers (III)," J. Colloid Interfac. Sci. 112, 457-472 (1986).

1984 (3)

R. Maoz, J. Sagiv, "On the formation of self-assembling monolayers (I)," J. Colloid Interfac. Sci. 100, 465-496 (1984).

J. Gun, R. Iscovici, J. Sagiv, "On the formation of self-assembling monolayers (II)," J. Colloid Interfac. Sci. 101, 201-213 (1984).

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, Jr.B. Bendow, "Heavy metal fluoride glasses and fibers: A review," J. Lightw. Tecnol. 2, 566-586 (1984).

1921 (1)

E. W. Washburn, "The dynamics of capillary flow," Phys. Rev. 17, 273-283 (1921).

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Progress in microstructured optical fibers," Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 36, 467-495 (2006).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

L. Houssiau, P. Bertrand, "ToF-SIMS study of organosilane self-assembly on aluminium surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 351-356 (2001).

L. Houssiau, P. Bertrand, "ToF-SIMS study of organosilane adsorption on model hydroxyl terminated surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 203–204, 580-585 (2003).

Inorg. Mater. (1)

A. F. Kosolapov, S. L. Semjonov, A. N. Denisov, "Mechanical properties of high-purity silica microstructured optical fiber," Inorg. Mater. 43, 310-314 (2007).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. R. Wasserman, G. M. Whitesides, I. M. Tidswell, B. M. Ocko, P. S. Pershan, J. D. Axe, "The structure of self-assembled monolayers of alkylsiloxanes on silicon: A comparison of results from ellipsometry and low-angle x-ray reflectivity," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 111, 5852-5861 (1989).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. S. Cheng, D. A. Scherson, C. N. Sukenik, "In situ observation of monolayer self-assembly by FTIR-ATR," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 114, 5436-5437 (1992).

J. Colloid Interfac. Sci. (3)

J. Gun, R. Iscovici, J. Sagiv, "On the formation of self-assembling monolayers (II)," J. Colloid Interfac. Sci. 101, 201-213 (1984).

J. Gun, J. Sagiv, "On the formation of self-assembling monolayers (III)," J. Colloid Interfac. Sci. 112, 457-472 (1986).

R. Maoz, J. Sagiv, "On the formation of self-assembling monolayers (I)," J. Colloid Interfac. Sci. 100, 465-496 (1984).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. H. V. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. C. Moore, V. Finazzi, K. E. Frampton, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, "High-nonlinearity dispersion-shifted lead-silicate holey fibers for efficient 1- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ pumped supercontinuum generation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 183-190 (2006).

J. Lightw. Tecnol. (1)

D. C. Tran, G. H. Sigel, Jr.B. Bendow, "Heavy metal fluoride glasses and fibers: A review," J. Lightw. Tecnol. 2, 566-586 (1984).

Langmuir (7)

D. L. Angst, G. W. Simmons, "Moisture absorption characteristics of organosiloxane self-assembled monolayers," Langmuir 7, 2236-2242 (1991).

R. Banga, J. Yarwood, A. M. Morgan, B. Evans, J. Kells, "FTIR and AFM studies of the kinetics and self-assembly of alkyltrichlorosilanes and (perofluroalkyl)trichlorosilanes onto glass and silicon," Langmuir 11, 4393-4399 (1995).

R. Banga, J. Yarwood, A. M. Morgan, "Determination of the ordering of alkylhalogensilanes on a silicon substrate using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy," Langmuir 11, 618-622 (1995).

J. D. Le Grange, J. L. Markham, "Effects of surface hydration on the deposition of silane monolayers on silica," Langmuir 9, 1749-1753 (1993).

P. Silberzan, L. Léger, D. Ausserré, J. J. Benattar, "Silanation of silica surfaces. A new method of constructing pure or mixed monolayers," Langmuir 7, 1647-1651 (1991).

K. M. R. Kallury, M. Thompson, C. P. Tripp, M. L. Hair, "Interaction of silicon surfaces silanized with octadecylchlorosilane with octadecanoic acid and octadecanamine studied by ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Langmuir 8, 947-954 (1992).

A. Baptiste, A. Gibaud, J. F. Bardeau, K. Wen, R. Maoz, J. Sagiv, B. M. Ocko, "X-ray, micro-Raman, and infrared spectroscopy structural characterization of self-assembled multilayer silane films with variable numbers of stacked layers," Langmuir 18, 3916-3922 (2002).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. Afshar, V. S. C. Warren-Smith, T. M. Monro, "Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres," Opt. Exp. 15, 17891-17901 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

Opt. Exp. (2)

J. B. Jensen, P. E. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. H. Pedersen, A. Bjarklev, "Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 5883-5889 (2005).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, "Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 15086-15092 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. W. Washburn, "The dynamics of capillary flow," Phys. Rev. 17, 273-283 (1921).

Supramol. Sci. (1)

R. Maoz, J. Sagiv, D. Degenhardt, H. Möhwald, P. Quint, "Hydrogen bonded multilayers of self-assembling silanes: Structure elucidation by combined FTIR spectroscopy and x-ray scattering techniques," Supramol. Sci. 2, 9-24 (1995).

Other (8)

J. S. Quinton, The oscillatory adsorption of organofunctional silanes on metal oxide surfaces Ph.D. dissertation Univ. NewcastleNewcastleU.K. (2000).

E. P. Plueddemann, Silane Coupling Agents (Plenum Press, 1991).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, T. M. Monro, "Heavy metal oxide glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity," Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. (OFS'2008) AnaheimCA (2005) paper OThA3.

J. A. Dean, Lange's Handbook of Chemistry (McGraw-Hill, 1967).

L. B. Loeb, The Kinetic Theory of Gases (Dover, 2004) pp. 281-285.

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses (Academic Press, 1994).

T. M. Monro, Y. Ruan, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T.-C. Foo, P. Hoffmann, R. C. Moore, "Antibody immobilization within glass microstructured fibers: A route to sensitive and selective biosensors," Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. (OFS'2008) PerthAustralia (2008).

S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Afshar, T. M. Monro, "Theoretical study of side access and thin-layer fluorescence-based optical-fibre sensors with sub-wavelength features," Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. (OFS'2008) PerthAustralia (2008).

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