Abstract

We propose an all-optical phase-interleaving technology based on dual-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). The proposed all-optical phase-interleaving technology is applied in an all-optical phase-multiplexing scheme to successfully phase-multiplex 2x or 3$\,\times\,$10-Gb/s DPSK-WDM signals to a 20- or 30-Gb/s DPSK in non-return-to-zero (NRZ) formats. The proposed all-optical phase multiplexing scheme is demonstrated using dual-pump FWM in highly nonlinear silica and bismuth fibers. In contrast with optical time-division multiplexing technology, the proposed all-optical phase-multiplexing technology does not require pulse-carving, thus offering a high spectral-efficiency. Differential precoder for each input tributary is operated independently, and no additional encoder or postcoder is required to recover the original data after demodulation on the receiver side.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. M. Saruwatari, "All-optical signal processing for terabit/second optical transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 6, 1363-1374 (2000).
  2. K. Inoue, "Four-wave mixing in an optical fiber in the zero-dispersion wavelength region," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1553-1561 (1992).
  3. J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in a microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).
  4. K. Inoue, H. Toha, "Wavelength conversion experiment using fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69-72 (1992).
  5. K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).
  6. Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan, A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).
  7. S. Watanabe, T. Naito, T. Chikama, "Compensation of chromatic dispersion in a single-mode fiber by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 91-95 (1993).
  8. A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, "Regenerative properties of a pump-modulated four-wave mixing scheme in dispersion-shifted fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1892-1902 (2003).
  9. T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, "Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly chirped square pulse," Electron. Lett. 30, 1959-1959 (1994).
  10. R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-18, 1062-1072 (1982).
  11. M. E. Marhic, N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, L. G. Kazovsky, "Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 21, 573-575 (1996).
  12. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. L. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parmetric amplfiiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
  13. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).
  14. K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka, L. G. Kazovsky, "Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 911-913 (2002).
  15. J. H. A. Andrekson, "Wavelength tunable 40 GHz pulse source based on fiber optical parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 37, 584-585 (2001).
  16. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Multiple-band bit-level switching in two-pump fiber parametric devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 852-854 (2004).
  17. J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 987-989 (2001).
  18. G. D. Bartolini, D. K. Serkland, P. K. L. Kath, "All-optical storage of a picosecond-pulse packet using parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1020-1022 (1997).
  19. E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 Gbit/s data in a slow light system based on narrow band fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Exp. 14 8540-8545 (2006).
  20. Y. Su, L. Wang, A. Agarwal, P. Kumar, "All-optical limiter using gain flattened fiber parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 36, 1103-1104 (2000).
  21. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 957-959 (2003).
  22. K. Croussore, I. Kim, Y. Han, C. Kim, G. Li, S. Radic, "Demonstration of phase-regeneration of DPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification," Opt. Exp. 13 3945-3950 (2005).
  23. H.-G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, C. Schubert, "Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4616-4627 (2006).
  24. B. Mukherjee, "WDM optical communication networks: Progress and challenges," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).
  25. J.-X. Cai, O. V. Sinkin, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, N. S. Bergano, "40 Gb/s transmission using polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RZ-DBPSK with automatic polarization tracking," Tech. Dig. Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (2008) Paper PDP4.
  26. D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savchenko, L. Chuandong, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120 km RZ-DPSK transmission over G652 fiber at 10 Gb/s with no optical dispersion compensation," Proc. Tech. Dig. Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (2005) pp. 79-81.
  27. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, E. Burrows, "25$\,\times\,$40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 467-469 (2003).
  28. G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, "Wideband all-optical phase interleaving technology enabling phase-multiplexing of 3$\,\times\,$10-Gb/s DPSK-WDM into 30-Gb/s DPSK using FWM in HNLF," Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC) (2007) Post-deadline paper PD1.4.
  29. J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegwa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, K. Kikuchi, "Wavelength conversion of 40-Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cn-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber," OFC (2005) paper PDP 23.
  30. N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, K. Kikuchi, "Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 ${\hbox {W}}^{-1}{\hbox {km}}^{-1}$," OFC (2004) Post-Deadline Paper PDP26.
  31. G.-W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, "A spectrum-efficient 80-Gbit/s DPSK transmitter using phase interleaving technology without optical-time or polarization-division multiplexing," IEEE LEOS Summer Topical Meet. (2007) Paper TuE3. 4.
  32. C. P. Kaiser, P. J. Smith, M. Shafi, "An improved optical heterodyne DPSK receiver to combat laser phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 525-533 (1995).
  33. M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, "Broadband wavelength conversion over 193-nm by HNL-DSF improving higher-order dispersion performance," Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005) Paper Th 4.4.4.
  34. I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, "Simple Q factor monitoring for BER estimation using opened eye diagrams captured by high-speed asynchronous electrooptical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 620-620 (2003).

2006 (2)

E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 Gbit/s data in a slow light system based on narrow band fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Exp. 14 8540-8545 (2006).

H.-G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, C. Schubert, "Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4616-4627 (2006).

2005 (2)

K. Croussore, I. Kim, Y. Han, C. Kim, G. Li, S. Radic, "Demonstration of phase-regeneration of DPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification," Opt. Exp. 13 3945-3950 (2005).

Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan, A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Multiple-band bit-level switching in two-pump fiber parametric devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 852-854 (2004).

2003 (4)

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 957-959 (2003).

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, E. Burrows, "25$\,\times\,$40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 467-469 (2003).

I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, "Simple Q factor monitoring for BER estimation using opened eye diagrams captured by high-speed asynchronous electrooptical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 620-620 (2003).

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, "Regenerative properties of a pump-modulated four-wave mixing scheme in dispersion-shifted fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1892-1902 (2003).

2002 (3)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. L. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parmetric amplfiiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).

K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka, L. G. Kazovsky, "Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 911-913 (2002).

2001 (3)

J. H. A. Andrekson, "Wavelength tunable 40 GHz pulse source based on fiber optical parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 37, 584-585 (2001).

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 987-989 (2001).

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in a microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).

2000 (3)

M. Saruwatari, "All-optical signal processing for terabit/second optical transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 6, 1363-1374 (2000).

Y. Su, L. Wang, A. Agarwal, P. Kumar, "All-optical limiter using gain flattened fiber parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 36, 1103-1104 (2000).

B. Mukherjee, "WDM optical communication networks: Progress and challenges," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

1997 (1)

G. D. Bartolini, D. K. Serkland, P. K. L. Kath, "All-optical storage of a picosecond-pulse packet using parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1020-1022 (1997).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

C. P. Kaiser, P. J. Smith, M. Shafi, "An improved optical heterodyne DPSK receiver to combat laser phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 525-533 (1995).

1994 (2)

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, "Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly chirped square pulse," Electron. Lett. 30, 1959-1959 (1994).

1993 (1)

S. Watanabe, T. Naito, T. Chikama, "Compensation of chromatic dispersion in a single-mode fiber by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 91-95 (1993).

1992 (2)

K. Inoue, "Four-wave mixing in an optical fiber in the zero-dispersion wavelength region," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1553-1561 (1992).

K. Inoue, H. Toha, "Wavelength conversion experiment using fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69-72 (1992).

1982 (1)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-18, 1062-1072 (1982).

Electron. Lett. (3)

J. H. A. Andrekson, "Wavelength tunable 40 GHz pulse source based on fiber optical parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 37, 584-585 (2001).

Y. Su, L. Wang, A. Agarwal, P. Kumar, "All-optical limiter using gain flattened fiber parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 36, 1103-1104 (2000).

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, "Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly chirped square pulse," Electron. Lett. 30, 1959-1959 (1994).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

K. Inoue, "Tunable and selective wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two pump lights," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1451-1453 (1994).

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, "All-optical regeneration in one-and two-pump parametric amplifiers using highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 957-959 (2003).

G. D. Bartolini, D. K. Serkland, P. K. L. Kath, "All-optical storage of a picosecond-pulse packet using parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1020-1022 (1997).

K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka, L. G. Kazovsky, "Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 911-913 (2002).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-18, 1062-1072 (1982).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

B. Mukherjee, "WDM optical communication networks: Progress and challenges," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. L. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parmetric amplfiiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. (1)

M. Saruwatari, "All-optical signal processing for terabit/second optical transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 6, 1363-1374 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Watanabe, T. Naito, T. Chikama, "Compensation of chromatic dispersion in a single-mode fiber by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 91-95 (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, E. Burrows, "25$\,\times\,$40-Gb/s copolarized DPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100-km NZDF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 467-469 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, J. C. Centanni, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Multiple-band bit-level switching in two-pump fiber parametric devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 852-854 (2004).

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gbit/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 987-989 (2001).

I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, "Simple Q factor monitoring for BER estimation using opened eye diagrams captured by high-speed asynchronous electrooptical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 620-620 (2003).

K. Inoue, H. Toha, "Wavelength conversion experiment using fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69-72 (1992).

IEEE Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. (1)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

Y. Wang, C. Yu, T. Luo, L. Yan, Z. Pan, A. E. Willner, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3331-3338 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, "Regenerative properties of a pump-modulated four-wave mixing scheme in dispersion-shifted fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1892-1902 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

C. P. Kaiser, P. J. Smith, M. Shafi, "An improved optical heterodyne DPSK receiver to combat laser phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 525-533 (1995).

K. Inoue, "Four-wave mixing in an optical fiber in the zero-dispersion wavelength region," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1553-1561 (1992).

H.-G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, C. Schubert, "Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4616-4627 (2006).

Opt. Exp. 13 (1)

K. Croussore, I. Kim, Y. Han, C. Kim, G. Li, S. Radic, "Demonstration of phase-regeneration of DPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification," Opt. Exp. 13 3945-3950 (2005).

Opt. Exp. 14 (1)

E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 Gbit/s data in a slow light system based on narrow band fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Exp. 14 8540-8545 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (7)

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, "Broadband wavelength conversion over 193-nm by HNL-DSF improving higher-order dispersion performance," Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC) (2005) Paper Th 4.4.4.

J.-X. Cai, O. V. Sinkin, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, N. S. Bergano, "40 Gb/s transmission using polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RZ-DBPSK with automatic polarization tracking," Tech. Dig. Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (2008) Paper PDP4.

D. McGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savchenko, L. Chuandong, G. Mak, M. O'Sullivan, "5120 km RZ-DPSK transmission over G652 fiber at 10 Gb/s with no optical dispersion compensation," Proc. Tech. Dig. Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (2005) pp. 79-81.

G.-W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, "Wideband all-optical phase interleaving technology enabling phase-multiplexing of 3$\,\times\,$10-Gb/s DPSK-WDM into 30-Gb/s DPSK using FWM in HNLF," Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC) (2007) Post-deadline paper PD1.4.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegwa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanemura, K. Kikuchi, "Wavelength conversion of 40-Gbit/s NRZ signal using four-wave mixing in 40-cn-long bismuth oxide based highly-nonlinear optical fiber," OFC (2005) paper PDP 23.

N. Sugimoto, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, K. Taira, K. Kikuchi, "Bismuth-based optical fiber with nonlinear coefficient of 1360 ${\hbox {W}}^{-1}{\hbox {km}}^{-1}$," OFC (2004) Post-Deadline Paper PDP26.

G.-W. Lu, T. Miyazaki, "A spectrum-efficient 80-Gbit/s DPSK transmitter using phase interleaving technology without optical-time or polarization-division multiplexing," IEEE LEOS Summer Topical Meet. (2007) Paper TuE3. 4.

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