Abstract

Broadband and low loss capability of photonics has led to an ever-increasing interest in its use for the generation, processing, control and distribution of microwave and millimeter-wave signals for applications such as broadband wireless access networks, sensor networks, radar, satellite communitarians, instrumentation and warfare systems. In this tutorial, techniques developed in the last few years in microwave photonics are reviewed with an emphasis on the systems architectures for photonic generation and processing of microwave signals, photonic true-time delay beamforming, radio-over-fiber systems, and photonic analog-to-digital conversion. Challenges in system implementation for practical applications and new areas of research in microwave photonics are also discussed.

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2008 (4)

J. P. Yao, H. Chi, "Frequency quadrupling and upconversion in a radio over fiber link," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, (2008).

Q. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Multi-tap photonic microwave filters with arbitrary positive and negative coefficients using a polarization modulator and an optical polarizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 78-80 (2008).

Y. Dai, J. P. Yao, "Nonuniformly-spaced photonic microwave delay-line filter," Opt. Express 16, 4713-4718 (2008).

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "A photonic analog-to-digital conversion scheme using Mach–Zehnder modulators with identical half-wave voltages," Opt. Express 16, 567-572 (2008).

2007 (15)

G. C. Valley, "Photonic analog-to-digital converters," Opt. Express 15, 1955-1982 (2007).

Y. Dai, J. P. Yao, "Microwave pulse phase encoding using a photonic microwave delay-line filter," Opt. Lett. 32, 3486-3488 (2007).

Y. Yan, J. P. Yao, "A tunable photonic microwave filter with a complex coefficient using an optical RF phase shifter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1472-1474 (2007).

J. P. Yao, Q. Wang, "Photonic microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficients using a polarization modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 644-646 (2007).

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber chirped microwave pulse generation based on spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time conversion," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1958-1963 (2007).

J. P. Yao, F. Zeng, Q. Wang, "Photonic generation of ultra-wideband signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3219-3235 (2007).

W. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, M. Yao, "All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization-differential interference and phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 625-627 (2007).

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, J. George, "Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3301-3320 (2007).

J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, S. Xie, "A photonic microwave frequency quafrupler using two cascaded intensity modulators with repetitious optical carrier suppression," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1057-1059 (2007).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, G. Chang, "Centralized lightwave radio-over-fiber system with photonic frequency quadrupling for high-frequency millimeter-wave generation," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1499-1501 (2007).

B. M. Jung, J. D. Shin, B. G. Kim, "Optical true time-delay for two-dimensional X-band phased array antennas," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 877-879 (2007).

J. J. V. Olmos, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, "Dynamic reconfigurable WDM 60-GHz millimeter-waveband radio-over-fiber access network: Architectural considerations and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3374-3380 (2007).

A. Nkansah, A. Das, N. J. Gomes, P. Shen, "Multilevel modulated signal transmission over serial single-mode and multimode fiber links using vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for millimeter-wave wireless communications," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1219-1228 (2007).

H. Kosek, Y. He, X. Gu, X. N. Fernando, "All-optical demultiplexing of WLAN and cellular CDMA radio signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1401-1409 (2007).

M. J. Crisp, L. Sheng, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11g signals using a distributed antenna network," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3388-3395 (2007).

2006 (18)

A. Nkansah, A. Das, C. Lethien, J.-P. Vilcot, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batohelor, D. Wake, "Simultaneous dual band transmission over multimode fiber-fed indoor wireless network," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 16, 627-629 (2006).

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Bidirectional multimode-fiber communication links using dual-purpose vertical-cavity devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1283-1294 (2006).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G. Chang, T. Wang, "Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006).

Z. Deng, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of microwave signal using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 763-767 (2006).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Xu, L. Chen, T. Wang, G. Chang, "DWDM optical millimeter-wave generation for radio-over-fiber using an optical phase modulator and an optical interleaver," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 1418-1420 (2006).

S. Blais, J. P. Yao, "Optical single sideband modulation using an ultranarrow dual-transmission-band fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2230-2232 (2006).

A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642-4654 (2006).

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, "Silicon photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).

A. Loayssa, J. Capmany, M. Sagues, J. Mora, "Demonstration of incoherent microwave photonic filters with all-optical complex coefficients," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1744-1746 (2006).

J. Stigwall, S. Galt, "Demonstration and analysis of a 40-Gigasample/s interferometric analog-to-digital converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1247-1256 (2006).

T. E. Darcie, P. F. Driessen, "Class-AB Techniques for high-dynamic-range microwave photonic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 929-931 (2006).

H. Rideout, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, J. P. Yao, "Discriminator-aided optical phase-lock loop incorporating a frequency down-conversion module," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2344-2346 (2006).

X. Chen, Z. Deng, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of microwave signal using a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 804-809 (2006).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).

R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 832-846 (2006).

Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, J. P. Yao, B. Cabon, "New optical microwave up-conversion solution in radio-over-fiber networks for 60 GHz wireless applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1277-1282 (2006).

B. Vidal, J. L. Corral, J. Marti, "All-optical WDM multi-tap microwave filter with flat bandpass," Opt. Express 14, 581-586 (2006).

2005 (14)

F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "All-optical microwave mixing and bandpass filtering in a radio-over-fiber link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 899-901 (2005).

J. Yao, J. P. Yao, Z. Deng, J. Liu, "Investigation of room-temperature multiwavelength fiber-ring laser that incorporates an SOA-based phase modulator in the laser cavity," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2484-2490 (2005).

J. P. Yao, G. Maury, Y. L. Guennec, B. Cabon, "All-optical subcarrier frequency conversion using an electrooptic phase modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2427-2429 (2005).

G. Qi, J. P. Yao, J. Seregelyi, C. Bélisle, S. Paquet, "Generation and distribution of a wide-band continuously tunable mm-wave signal with an optical external modulation technique," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 3090-3097 (2005).

G. Qi, J. P. Yao, J. Seregelyi, C. Bélisle, S. Paquet, "Optical generation and distribution of continuously tunable millimeter-wave signals using an optical phase modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2687-2695 (2005).

J. Wang, F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "All-optical microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficients based on PM-IM conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2176-2178 (2005).

F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "Investigation of phase modulator based all-optical bandpass microwave filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1721-1728 (2005).

M. Currie, "Optical quantization of microwave signals via distributed phase modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 827-833 (2005).

J. Stigwall, S. Galt, "Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 468-470 (2005).

X. Chen, J. P. Yao, Z. Deng, "Ultranarrow dual-transmission-band fiber Bragg grating filter and its application in a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 2068-2070 (2005).

F. Zeng, J. Wang, J. P. Yao, "All-optical microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficients based on a phase modulator and linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 2203-2205 (2005).

M. Attygalle, C. Lim, G. J. Pendock, A. Nirmalathas, G. Edvell, "Transmission improvement in fiber wireless links using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 190-192 (2005).

Y. Shen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, "Optical single sideband modulation of 11-GHz RoF system using stimulated Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1277-1279 (2005).

A. Nkansah, N. J. Gomes, "Characterization of radio over multimode fiber links using coherence bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2694-2696 (2005).

2004 (8)

C. Lethien, J.-P. Vilcot, S. McMurtry, J.-F. Lampin, D. Vignaud, P. Miska, D. Decoster, F. Mollot, "Characterisation of ${\rm SiO}_{2}$ transferred GaAs electroabsorption modulator for 850 nm radio over fibre systems based on multimode fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 1075-1076 (2004).

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, M. Tur, "Implementation of photonic true time delay using high-order-mode dispersion compensating fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367-1369 (2004).

S. S. Lee, Y. H. Oh, S. Y. Shin, "Photonic microwave true-time delay based on a tapered fiber Bragg grating with resistive coating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2335-2337 (2004).

A. Kaszubowska, P. Anandarajah, L. P. Barry, "Multifunctional operation of a fiber Bragg grating in a WDM/SCM radio over fiber distribution system," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 605-607 (2004).

H.-J. Song, J. S. Lee, J.-I. Song, "All-optical frequency upconversion of radio over fibre signal with optical heterodyne detection," Electron. Lett. 40, 330-331 (2004).

J. S. Lee, H.-J. Song, W. B. Kim, M. Fujise, Y.-H. Kim, J.-I. Song, "All-optical harmonic frequency upconversion of radio over fibre signal using cross-phase modulation in semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 40, 1211-1213 (2004).

A. Loayssa, R. Hernandez, D. Benito, S. Galech, "Characterization of stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra by use of optical single-sideband modulation," Opt. Lett. 29, 638-640 (2004).

F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "All-optical bandpass microwave filter based on an electro-optic phase modulator," Optics Express 12, 3814-3819 (2004).

2003 (6)

L. Roselli, V. Borgioni, F. Zepparelli, F. Ambrosi, M. Comez, P. Faccin, A. Casini, "Analog laser predistortion for multiservice radio-over-fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1211-1223 (2003).

Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, "Wideband true time-delay beamformer employing a tunable chirped fiber grating prism," Appl. Opt. 42, 2273-2277 (2003).

V. Polo, B. Vidal, J. L. Corral, J. Marti, "Novel tunable photonics microwave filter based on laser arrays and ${\rm N}\times{\rm N}$ AWG-based delay lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 584-586 (2003).

K. H. Lee, W. Y. Choi, S. Choi, K. Oh, "A novel tunable fiber-optic microwave filter using multimode DCF," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 969-971 (2003).

J. Mora, M. V. Andres, J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Tunable all-optical negative multitap microwave filters based on uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 28, 1308-1310 (2003).

J. Capmany, D. Pastor, A. Martinez, B. Ortega, S. Sales, "Microwave photonics filter with negative coefficients based on phase inversion in an electro-optic modulator," Opt. Lett. 28, 1415-1417 (2003).

2002 (6)

Y. Wang, S. C. Tjin, J. Yao, J. P. Yao, L. He, K. A. Ngoi, "Wavelength-switching fiber laser for optically controlled phased-array antenna," Opt. Comm. 211, 147-151 (2002).

J. P. Yao, J. Yang, Y. Liu, "Continuous true-time-delay beamforming employing a multiwavelength tunable fiber laser source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 687-689 (2002).

Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, J. Yang, "Wideband true-time-delay unit for phased array beamforming using discrete-chirped fiber grating prism," Opt. Comm. 207, 177-187 (2002).

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. P. Yao, "Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172-1174 (2002).

Y. Chen, R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).

Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, X. Dong, J. Yang, "Tunable chirping of a fibre Bragg grating without center wavelength shift using simply supported beam," Opt. Eng. 41, 740-741 (2002).

2001 (4)

N. You, R. A. Minasian, "A novel tunable microwave optical notch filter," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 22002-2005 (2001).

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, "Broad-band tunable microwave transversal notch filter based on tunable uniform fiber Bragg gratings as slicing filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 726-728 (2001).

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, "Polarization synthesized optical transversal filter employing high birefringence fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 523-525 (2001).

2000 (6)

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, "Experimental demonstration of parallel fiber-optic-based RF filtering using WDM techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 77-78 (2000).

G. Yu, W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, "High-performance microwave transversal filter using fiber Bragg grating arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1183-1185 (2000).

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andrés, D. Pastor, "Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48, 1352-1360 (2000).

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andrés, D. Pastor, "Analysis of a microwave time delay line based on a perturbed uniform fiber Bragg grating operating at constant wavelength," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 430-436 (2000).

X. Wang, K. T. Chan, "Tunable all-optical incoherent bipolar delay-line filter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser and fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 36, 2001-2002 (2000).

S. Li, K. S. Chiang, W. A. Gambling, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "A novel tunable all-optical incoherent negative-tap fiber-optical transversal filter based on a DFB laser diode and fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1207-1209 (2000).

1999 (9)

J. Capmany, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, "New and flexible fiber-optic delay-line filters using chirped Bragg gratings and laser arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory and Technol. 47, 1321-1326 (1999).

J. Marti, V. Polo, F. Ramos, D. Moodie, "Photonics tunable microwave filters employing electro-absorption modulators and wideband chirped fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 305-306 (1999).

A. C. Bordonaalli, C. Walton, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 328-342 (1999).

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, A. J. Seeds, "High-Performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection locking and optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 328-342 (1999).

E. I. Ackerman, "Broad-band linearization of a Mach–Zehnder electrooptic modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2271-2279 (1999).

M. L. Farwell, W. S. C. Chang, D. R. Huber, "Increased linear dynamic range by low biasing the Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 779-782 (1999).

C. Lindsay, "An analysis of coherent carrier suppression for photonic microwave links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1194-1200 (1999).

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).

A. Stöhr, K. Kitayama, D. Jäger, "Full-duplex fiber-optic RF subcarrier transmission using a dual-function modulator/photodetector," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1338-1341 (1999).

1998 (5)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, C. Lim, "A millimeter-wave full-duplex radio-over-fiber star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).

U. Gliese, T. N. Nielsen, S. Nørskov, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Multifunctional fiber-optic microwave links based on remote heterodyne detection," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 458-468 (1998).

J. Marti, F. Ramos, R. I. Laming, "Photonic microwave filter employing multimode optical sources and wideband chirped fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 34, 1760-1761 (1998).

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, "A wide-band fiber-optic true-time-steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, "Multiwavelength optically controlled phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 108-115 (1998).

1997 (12)

A. Molony, Z. Lin, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, J. Fells, "Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: Discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1527-1530 (1997).

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1529-1531 (1997).

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, "Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241-243 (1997).

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, "Optical-fiber-grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1513-1517 (1997).

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, B. Jalali, "All-optical RF filter using amplitude inversion in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1473-1477 (1997).

T. A. Cusick, S. Iezekiel, R. E. Miles, S. Sales, J. Capmany, "Synthesis of all-optical microwave filters using Mach–Zehnder lattices," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1458-1462 (1997).

D. B. Hunter, R. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of microwave signals using an active-fiber Bragg-grating-pair structure," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1463-1466 (1997).

Z. F. Fan, M. Dagenais, "Optical generation of a mHz-linewidth microwave signal using semiconductor lasers and a discriminator-aided phase-locked loop," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1296-1300 (1997).

L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, "Novel techniques for high-capacity 60 GHz radio-over-fiber transmission systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1416-1423 (1997).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1410-1415 (1997).

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, K. Y. Lau, "Elimination of the fibre chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission," Electron. Lett. 33, 512-513 (1997).

L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, "Optimizing the ultrawide-band photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1384-1389 (1997).

1996 (3)

D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Antoine, J. P. Huignard, D. Philippet, P. Granger, "Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays," Appl. Opt. 35, 5293-5300 (1996).

D. B. Hunter, R. Minasian, "Microwave optical filters using in-fiber Bragg grating arrays," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 6, 103-105 (1996).

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, "True time-delay phased-array antenna feed system based on optical heterodyne techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 160-162 (1996).

1995 (9)

A. Molony, C. Edge, I. Bennion, "Fibre grating time delay element for phased array antennas," Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).

I. Frigyes, A. J. Seeds, "Optically generated true-time delay in phased-array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, "The use of optically coherent detection techniques for true-time delay phased array and systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1663-1678 (1995).

J. Capmany, J. Cascon, J. L. Martin, S. Sales, D. Pastor, J. Marti, "Synthesis of fiber-optic delay line filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2003-2012 (1995).

J. Capmany, J. Martin, "Solutions to the synthesis problem of optical delay line filters," Opt. Lett. 20, 2438-2440 (1995).

D. B. Hunter, R. Minasian, "Reflectivity tapped fiber optic transversal filter using in-fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 31, 1010-1012 (1995).

S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Marti, D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiber-optic delay line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).

B. Jalali, Y. M. Xie, "Optical folding-flash analog-to-digital converter with analog encoding," Opt. Lett. 20, 1901-1903 (1995).

R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Wideband efficiency improvement of fiber optic systems by carrier subtraction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218-220 (1995).

1994 (7)

P. E. Pace, D. Styer, "High-resolution encoding process for an integrated optical analog-to-digital converter," Opt. Eng. 33, 2638-2645 (1994).

D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, "Tunable microwave filtering using high dispersion fiber time delays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 831-832 (1994).

E. C. Heyd, R. A. Minasian, "A solution to the synthesis problem of recirculating optical delay line filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 833-835 (1994).

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, "Remote delivery of video services using mm-wave and optics," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 369-375 (1994).

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, "Fiber-supported optical generation and delivery of 60 GHz signals," Electron. Lett. 30, 1329-1330 (1994).

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, "Programmable fiber optic delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 741-743 (1994).

E. H. Monsay, K. C. Baldwin, M. J. Caccuitto, "Photonic true time delay for high-frequency phased array systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 118-120 (1994).

1993 (4)

P. M. Freitag, S. R. Forrest, "A coherent optically controlled phased array antenna system," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 3, 293-295 (1993).

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. G. Cooper, "Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347-1349 (1993).

J. H. Schaffner, W. B. Bridges, "Inter-modulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 3-6 (1993).

D. Hassin, R. Vahldieck, "Feedforward linearization of analog modulated laser diodes—Theoretical analysis and experimental verification," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41, 2376-2382 (1993).

1992 (5)

H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, S. Banba, "Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992).

R. D. Esman, J. J. Monsma, J. L. Dexter, D. G. Cooper, "Microwave true time-delay modulator using fibre-optic dispersion," Electron. Lett. 28, 1905-1908 (1992).

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimeter wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309-2311 (1992).

R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, "Fast heterodyne optical phase-lock loop using double quantum well laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 28, 82-83 (1992).

U. Gliese, T. N. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, K. E. Stubkjaer, S. Lindgren, B. Broberg, "A wideband heterodyne optical phase-locked loop for generation of 3–18 GHz microwave carriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 936-938 (1992).

1991 (2)

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, "The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1124-1131 (1991).

D. Dolfi, F. Michel-Gabriel, S. Bann, J. P. Huignard, "Two-dimensional optical architecture for time-delay beam forming in a phased-array antenna," Opt. Lett. 16, 255-257 (1991).

1990 (2)

A. J. Cooper, "Fiber/radio for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network," Electron. Lett. 26, 2054-2056 (1990).

S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, H. Wakabayashi, "Analysis of laser phase noise to intensity noise conversion by chromatic dispersion in intensity modulation and direct detection optical-fiber transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1716-1722 (1990).

1989 (2)

K. J. Williams, "6–34 GHz offset phase locking of Nd: YAG 1319 nm nonplanar ring lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 1242-1243 (1989).

J. Harrison, A. Mooradian, "Linewidth and offset frequency locking of external cavity GaAlAs lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1252-1255 (1989).

1987 (1)

T. Mukai, K. Inoue, T. Saitoh, "Homogeneous gain saturation in 1.5 m InGaAsP traveling-wave semiconductor laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 381-383 (1987).

1985 (1)

L. Goldberg, A. Yurek, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, "35 GHz microwave signal generation with injection locked laser diode," Electron Lett. 21, 714-715 (1985).

1983 (1)

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. M. Bloom, "Microwave signal generation with injection locked laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 491-493 (1983).

1979 (1)

H. F. Taylor, "An optical analog-to-digital converter-design and analysis," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 210-216 (1979).

1976 (1)

K. Wilner, A. P. Va den Heuvel, "Fiber-optic delay lines for microwave signal processing," Proc. IEEE 64, 805-807 (1976).

1975 (1)

H. F. Taylor, "An electrooptic analog-to-digital converter," Proc. IEEE 63, 1524-1525 (1975).

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Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, "Wideband true time-delay beamformer employing a tunable chirped fiber grating prism," Appl. Opt. 42, 2273-2277 (2003).

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T. Mukai, K. Inoue, T. Saitoh, "Homogeneous gain saturation in 1.5 m InGaAsP traveling-wave semiconductor laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 381-383 (1987).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron Lett. (1)

L. Goldberg, A. Yurek, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, "35 GHz microwave signal generation with injection locked laser diode," Electron Lett. 21, 714-715 (1985).

Electron. Lett. (8)

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. M. Bloom, "Microwave signal generation with injection locked laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 491-493 (1983).

R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, "Fast heterodyne optical phase-lock loop using double quantum well laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 28, 82-83 (1992).

K. J. Williams, "6–34 GHz offset phase locking of Nd: YAG 1319 nm nonplanar ring lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 1242-1243 (1989).

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimeter wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309-2311 (1992).

D. B. Hunter, R. Minasian, "Reflectivity tapped fiber optic transversal filter using in-fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 31, 1010-1012 (1995).

J. Marti, F. Ramos, R. I. Laming, "Photonic microwave filter employing multimode optical sources and wideband chirped fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 34, 1760-1761 (1998).

J. Marti, V. Polo, F. Ramos, D. Moodie, "Photonics tunable microwave filters employing electro-absorption modulators and wideband chirped fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 305-306 (1999).

S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Marti, D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiber-optic delay line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).

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X. Wang, K. T. Chan, "Tunable all-optical incoherent bipolar delay-line filter using injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser and fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 36, 2001-2002 (2000).

R. D. Esman, J. J. Monsma, J. L. Dexter, D. G. Cooper, "Microwave true time-delay modulator using fibre-optic dispersion," Electron. Lett. 28, 1905-1908 (1992).

A. Molony, C. Edge, I. Bennion, "Fibre grating time delay element for phased array antennas," Electron. Lett. 31, 1485-1486 (1995).

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, "Fiber-supported optical generation and delivery of 60 GHz signals," Electron. Lett. 30, 1329-1330 (1994).

A. J. Cooper, "Fiber/radio for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network," Electron. Lett. 26, 2054-2056 (1990).

C. Lethien, J.-P. Vilcot, S. McMurtry, J.-F. Lampin, D. Vignaud, P. Miska, D. Decoster, F. Mollot, "Characterisation of ${\rm SiO}_{2}$ transferred GaAs electroabsorption modulator for 850 nm radio over fibre systems based on multimode fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 1075-1076 (2004).

H.-J. Song, J. S. Lee, J.-I. Song, "All-optical frequency upconversion of radio over fibre signal with optical heterodyne detection," Electron. Lett. 40, 330-331 (2004).

J. S. Lee, H.-J. Song, W. B. Kim, M. Fujise, Y.-H. Kim, J.-I. Song, "All-optical harmonic frequency upconversion of radio over fibre signal using cross-phase modulation in semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 40, 1211-1213 (2004).

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, K. Y. Lau, "Elimination of the fibre chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission," Electron. Lett. 33, 512-513 (1997).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Harrison, A. Mooradian, "Linewidth and offset frequency locking of external cavity GaAlAs lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1252-1255 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (4)

J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, S. Xie, "A photonic microwave frequency quafrupler using two cascaded intensity modulators with repetitious optical carrier suppression," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1057-1059 (2007).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G. Chang, T. Wang, "Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, C. Lim, "A millimeter-wave full-duplex radio-over-fiber star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).

A. Nkansah, N. J. Gomes, "Characterization of radio over multimode fiber links using coherence bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17, 2694-2696 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, M. Tur, "Implementation of photonic true time delay using high-order-mode dispersion compensating fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367-1369 (2004).

Y. Shen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, "Optical single sideband modulation of 11-GHz RoF system using stimulated Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1277-1279 (2005).

R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Wideband efficiency improvement of fiber optic systems by carrier subtraction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 218-220 (1995).

V. Polo, B. Vidal, J. L. Corral, J. Marti, "Novel tunable photonics microwave filter based on laser arrays and ${\rm N}\times{\rm N}$ AWG-based delay lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 584-586 (2003).

E. C. Heyd, R. A. Minasian, "A solution to the synthesis problem of recirculating optical delay line filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 833-835 (1994).

M. L. Farwell, W. S. C. Chang, D. R. Huber, "Increased linear dynamic range by low biasing the Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 779-782 (1999).

J. Wang, F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "All-optical microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficients based on PM-IM conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2176-2178 (2005).

J. P. Yao, Q. Wang, "Photonic microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficients using a polarization modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 644-646 (2007).

A. Loayssa, J. Capmany, M. Sagues, J. Mora, "Demonstration of incoherent microwave photonic filters with all-optical complex coefficients," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1744-1746 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (5)

C. Lindsay, "An analysis of coherent carrier suppression for photonic microwave links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1194-1200 (1999).

U. Gliese, T. N. Nielsen, S. Nørskov, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Multifunctional fiber-optic microwave links based on remote heterodyne detection," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 458-468 (1998).

R. A. Minasian, K. E. Alameh, "Optical-fiber-grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1513-1517 (1997).

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andrés, D. Pastor, "Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48, 1352-1360 (2000).

E. I. Ackerman, "Broad-band linearization of a Mach–Zehnder electrooptic modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2271-2279 (1999).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. F. Taylor, "An optical analog-to-digital converter-design and analysis," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 210-216 (1979).

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R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. (1)

D. B. Hunter, R. Minasian, "Microwave optical filters using in-fiber Bragg grating arrays," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 6, 103-105 (1996).

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. (1)

P. M. Freitag, S. R. Forrest, "A coherent optically controlled phased array antenna system," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 3, 293-295 (1993).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

A. Nkansah, A. Das, C. Lethien, J.-P. Vilcot, N. J. Gomes, I. J. Garcia, J. C. Batohelor, D. Wake, "Simultaneous dual band transmission over multimode fiber-fed indoor wireless network," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 16, 627-629 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

M. Attygalle, C. Lim, G. J. Pendock, A. Nirmalathas, G. Edvell, "Transmission improvement in fiber wireless links using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 190-192 (2005).

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. G. Cooper, "Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347-1349 (1993).

S. Li, K. S. Chiang, W. A. Gambling, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "A novel tunable all-optical incoherent negative-tap fiber-optical transversal filter based on a DFB laser diode and fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1207-1209 (2000).

G. Yu, W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, "High-performance microwave transversal filter using fiber Bragg grating arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1183-1185 (2000).

Q. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Multi-tap photonic microwave filters with arbitrary positive and negative coefficients using a polarization modulator and an optical polarizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 78-80 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (3)

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, G. Chang, "Centralized lightwave radio-over-fiber system with photonic frequency quadrupling for high-frequency millimeter-wave generation," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1499-1501 (2007).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Xu, L. Chen, T. Wang, G. Chang, "DWDM optical millimeter-wave generation for radio-over-fiber using an optical phase modulator and an optical interleaver," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 1418-1420 (2006).

A. Kaszubowska, P. Anandarajah, L. P. Barry, "Multifunctional operation of a fiber Bragg grating in a WDM/SCM radio over fiber distribution system," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 16, 605-607 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, E. N. Toughlian, "Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 241-243 (1997).

J. P. Yao, J. Yang, Y. Liu, "Continuous true-time-delay beamforming employing a multiwavelength tunable fiber laser source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 687-689 (2002).

T. E. Darcie, P. F. Driessen, "Class-AB Techniques for high-dynamic-range microwave photonic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 929-931 (2006).

F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "All-optical microwave mixing and bandpass filtering in a radio-over-fiber link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 899-901 (2005).

W. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, Z. Zhang, M. Yao, "All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization-differential interference and phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 625-627 (2007).

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Y. Yan, J. P. Yao, "A tunable photonic microwave filter with a complex coefficient using an optical RF phase shifter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1472-1474 (2007).

J. Stigwall, S. Galt, "Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 468-470 (2005).

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, "Programmable fiber optic delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 741-743 (1994).

E. H. Monsay, K. C. Baldwin, M. J. Caccuitto, "Photonic true time delay for high-frequency phased array systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 118-120 (1994).

Y. Dai, J. P. Yao, "Chirped RF pulse generation using a photonic microwave filter with a quadratic phase response," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1529-1531 (1997).

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, "A wide-band fiber-optic true-time-steered array receiver capable of multiple independent simultaneous beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 722-724 (1998).

J. P. Yao, G. Maury, Y. L. Guennec, B. Cabon, "All-optical subcarrier frequency conversion using an electrooptic phase modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2427-2429 (2005).

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, "True time-delay phased-array antenna feed system based on optical heterodyne techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 160-162 (1996).

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, "Broad-band tunable microwave transversal notch filter based on tunable uniform fiber Bragg gratings as slicing filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 726-728 (2001).

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, "Polarization synthesized optical transversal filter employing high birefringence fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 523-525 (2001).

D. Pastor, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, "Experimental demonstration of parallel fiber-optic-based RF filtering using WDM techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 77-78 (2000).

D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, "Tunable microwave filtering using high dispersion fiber time delays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 831-832 (1994).

K. H. Lee, W. Y. Choi, S. Choi, K. Oh, "A novel tunable fiber-optic microwave filter using multimode DCF," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 969-971 (2003).

U. Gliese, T. N. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, K. E. Stubkjaer, S. Lindgren, B. Broberg, "A wideband heterodyne optical phase-locked loop for generation of 3–18 GHz microwave carriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 936-938 (1992).

H. Rideout, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, J. P. Yao, "Discriminator-aided optical phase-lock loop incorporating a frequency down-conversion module," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2344-2346 (2006).

S. Blais, J. P. Yao, "Optical single sideband modulation using an ultranarrow dual-transmission-band fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2230-2232 (2006).

S. S. Lee, Y. H. Oh, S. Y. Shin, "Photonic microwave true-time delay based on a tapered fiber Bragg grating with resistive coating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2335-2337 (2004).

B. M. Jung, J. D. Shin, B. G. Kim, "Optical true time-delay for two-dimensional X-band phased array antennas," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 877-879 (2007).

Y. Liu, J. Yang, J. P. Yao, "Continuous true-time-delay beamforming for phased array antenna using a tunable chirped fiber grating delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1172-1174 (2002).

Y. Chen, R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

S. Mathai, F. Cappelluti, T. Jung, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse, D. Siveco, A. Y. Cho, G. Ghione, M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of a balanced electroabsorption modulated microwave photonic link," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1956-1961 (2001).

T. A. Cusick, S. Iezekiel, R. E. Miles, S. Sales, J. Capmany, "Synthesis of all-optical microwave filters using Mach–Zehnder lattices," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1458-1462 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

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