Abstract

We review technologies and architectures for WDM optical IP networks from the viewpoint of capital expenditure and network energy consumption. We show how requirements of low cost and low energy consumption can influence the choice of switching technologies as well as the overall network architecture.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. D. T. Neilson, "Photonics for switching and routing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 669-677 (2006).
  2. A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2007).
  3. M. Gupta, S. Singh, "Greening of the Internet," ACM SIGCOMM 2003 (2003).
  4. J. G. Koomey, H. Chong, B. Loh, B. Nordman, M. Blazek, "Network electricity use associated with wireless personal digital assistants," ASCE J. Infrastructure Syst. 10, 131-137 (2004).
  5. K. Christensen, "The next frontier for communications networks: Power management," Proc. SPIE—Performance and Control of Next-Generation Commun. Networks (2003).
  6. A. Vukovic, "Communication network power efficiency—assessment, limitations, and directions," Electron. Cooling 10, (2004).
  7. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Photonic switching and the energy bottleneck," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching 2007 (2007).
  8. R. S. Tucker, "Optical packet-switched WDM networks-a cost and energy perspective," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. (OFC 2008) (2008).
  9. J. Spring, R. S. Tucker, "Photonic 2$\,\times\,$2 packet switch with input buffers," Electron. Lett. 29, 284-284 (1993).
  10. D. Chiaroni, "Physical and logical validation of a network based on all-optical packet switching systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2255-2264 (1998).
  11. C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching OBS—A new paragigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Networks 8, 69-84 (1999).
  12. R. S. Tucker, W. Zhong, "Photonic packet switching: An overview," IEICE Trans. E82-B, 254-264 (1999).
  13. S. J. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).
  14. K. Chandra, Wiley Encyclopedia on Telecommunications (Wiley, 2003).
  15. R. Parthiban, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, "Waveband grooming and IP aggregation in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2476-2488 (2003).
  16. K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. D. Doverspike, "IPTV challenges," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. (OFC) (2008).
  17. R. Parthiban, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, A. Zalesky, A. V. Tran, "Does optical burst switching have a role in the core network?," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005) pp. 3-3.
  18. R. Pathiban, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, A. Zalesky, "Waveband grooming in optical burst switching," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2006) pp. 2.
  19. S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstädter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Cole, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, "Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures: A quantitative study," IEEE Commun. Mag. , (2005).
  20. J. G. Koomey, Estimating Total Power Consumption by Servers in the U.S. and the World (Analytics, 2007).
  21. J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption of the Internet," COIN-ACOFT (2007).
  22. P. V. Mieghem, Performance Analysis of Communications Networks and Systems (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).
  23. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. Sorin, R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightw. Technol. .
  24. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. Sorin, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in access networks," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. (2008).
  25. R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).
  26. G. Epps, "Cisco," (2007) private communication.
  27. R. S. Tucker, "Optical packet switching: A reality check," Optical Switching and Networking 5, 2-9 (2008).

2008 (1)

R. S. Tucker, "Optical packet switching: A reality check," Optical Switching and Networking 5, 2-9 (2008).

2007 (2)

G. Epps, "Cisco," (2007) private communication.

A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2007).

2006 (3)

D. T. Neilson, "Photonics for switching and routing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 669-677 (2006).

S. J. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

2005 (1)

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstädter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Cole, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, "Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures: A quantitative study," IEEE Commun. Mag. , (2005).

2004 (2)

J. G. Koomey, H. Chong, B. Loh, B. Nordman, M. Blazek, "Network electricity use associated with wireless personal digital assistants," ASCE J. Infrastructure Syst. 10, 131-137 (2004).

A. Vukovic, "Communication network power efficiency—assessment, limitations, and directions," Electron. Cooling 10, (2004).

2003 (1)

R. Parthiban, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, "Waveband grooming and IP aggregation in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2476-2488 (2003).

1999 (2)

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching OBS—A new paragigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Networks 8, 69-84 (1999).

R. S. Tucker, W. Zhong, "Photonic packet switching: An overview," IEICE Trans. E82-B, 254-264 (1999).

1998 (1)

D. Chiaroni, "Physical and logical validation of a network based on all-optical packet switching systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2255-2264 (1998).

1993 (1)

J. Spring, R. S. Tucker, "Photonic 2$\,\times\,$2 packet switch with input buffers," Electron. Lett. 29, 284-284 (1993).

ASCE J. Infrastructure Syst. (1)

J. G. Koomey, H. Chong, B. Loh, B. Nordman, M. Blazek, "Network electricity use associated with wireless personal digital assistants," ASCE J. Infrastructure Syst. 10, 131-137 (2004).

Electron. Cooling (1)

A. Vukovic, "Communication network power efficiency—assessment, limitations, and directions," Electron. Cooling 10, (2004).

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Spring, R. S. Tucker, "Photonic 2$\,\times\,$2 packet switch with input buffers," Electron. Lett. 29, 284-284 (1993).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

D. T. Neilson, "Photonics for switching and routing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 669-677 (2006).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

S. Pasqualini, A. Kirstädter, A. Iselt, R. Chahine, D. Cole, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, "Influence of GMPLS on network providers' operational expenditures: A quantitative study," IEEE Commun. Mag. , (2005).

IEICE Trans. (1)

R. S. Tucker, W. Zhong, "Photonic packet switching: An overview," IEICE Trans. E82-B, 254-264 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

S. J. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

D. Chiaroni, "Physical and logical validation of a network based on all-optical packet switching systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2255-2264 (1998).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2007).

J. High Speed Networks (1)

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching OBS—A new paragigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Networks 8, 69-84 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

R. Parthiban, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, "Waveband grooming and IP aggregation in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2476-2488 (2003).

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. Sorin, R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightw. Technol. .

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

Journal of Lightwave Technology (1)

G. Epps, "Cisco," (2007) private communication.

Optical Switching and Networking (1)

R. S. Tucker, "Optical packet switching: A reality check," Optical Switching and Networking 5, 2-9 (2008).

Other (12)

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. Sorin, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in access networks," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. (2008).

K. Chandra, Wiley Encyclopedia on Telecommunications (Wiley, 2003).

K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. D. Doverspike, "IPTV challenges," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. (OFC) (2008).

R. Parthiban, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, A. Zalesky, A. V. Tran, "Does optical burst switching have a role in the core network?," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005) pp. 3-3.

R. Pathiban, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, A. Zalesky, "Waveband grooming in optical burst switching," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2006) pp. 2.

J. G. Koomey, Estimating Total Power Consumption by Servers in the U.S. and the World (Analytics, 2007).

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption of the Internet," COIN-ACOFT (2007).

P. V. Mieghem, Performance Analysis of Communications Networks and Systems (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Photonic switching and the energy bottleneck," Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching 2007 (2007).

R. S. Tucker, "Optical packet-switched WDM networks-a cost and energy perspective," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. (OFC 2008) (2008).

M. Gupta, S. Singh, "Greening of the Internet," ACM SIGCOMM 2003 (2003).

K. Christensen, "The next frontier for communications networks: Power management," Proc. SPIE—Performance and Control of Next-Generation Commun. Networks (2003).

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