Abstract

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a modulation technique which is now used in most new and emerging broadband wired and wireless communication systems because it is an effective solution to intersymbol interference caused by a dispersive channel. Very recently a number of researchers have shown that OFDM is also a promising technology for optical communications. This paper gives a tutorial overview of OFDM highlighting the aspects that are likely to be important in optical applications. To achieve good performance in optical systems OFDM must be adapted in various ways. The constraints imposed by single mode optical fiber, multimode optical fiber and optical wireless are discussed and the new forms of optical OFDM which have been developed are outlined. The main drawbacks of OFDM are its high peak to average power ratio and its sensitivity to phase noise and frequency offset. The impairments that these cause are described and their implications for optical systems discussed.

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2008 (8)

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of electronic dispersion compensation for long haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 196-203 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

J. Armstrong, B. J. C. Schmidt, "Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343-345 (2008).

N. Letzepis, I. Holland, W. Cowley, "The Gaussian free space optical MIMO channel with Q-ary pulse position modulation," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 1744-1753 (2008).

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, "Performance bounds for free-space optical MIMO systems with APD receivers in atmospheric turbulence," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, 3-12 (2008).

Q. Yang, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, "Bit and power loading for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1305-1307 (2008).

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, "Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1309-1316 (2008).

W. Shieh, Y. Xingwen, M. Yiran, Y. Qi, "Coherent optical OFDM: Has its time come? [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 234-255 (2008).

2007 (7)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).

M. Greenberg, M. Nazarathy, M. Orenstein, "Data parallelization by optical MIMO transmission over multimode fiber with intermodal coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1503-1514 (2007).

A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, B. Jalali, "Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 57-63 (2007).

A. P. T. Lau, X. Lei, W. Ting, "Performance of receivers and detection algorithms for modal multiplexing in multimode fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1087-1089 (2007).

W. Shieh, "PMD-supported coherent optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 134-136 (2007).

A. J. Lowery, "Fiber nonlinearity mitigation in optical links that use OFDM for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1556-1558 (2007).

X. Yi, W. Shieh, T. Yan, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 19, 919-921 (2007).

2006 (9)

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Expr. 14, 2079-2084 (2006).

W. Shieh, W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, "Polarisation mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).

J. Armstrong, A. J. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 42, 370-371 (2006).

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-588 (2006).

J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, K. A. Shore, "Transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 205-207 (2006).

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "Adaptive OFDM system for communications over the indoor wireless optical channel," IEE Proc.–Optoelectron. 153, 139-144 (2006).

J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, K. A. Shore, "High-speed transmission of adatively modulated optical OFDM signals over multimode fibers using directly modulated DFBs," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 429-441 (2006).

D. Dardari, "Joint clip and quantization effects characterization in OFDM receivers," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundamental Theory Applicat. 53, 1741-1748 (2006).

U. Onunkwo, L. Ye, A. Swami, "Effect of timing jitter on OFDM-based UWB systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 787-793 (2006).

2005 (3)

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel," IEE Proc.—Optoelectronics 152, 199-204 (2005).

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "10 Gbit/s multimode fiber link using power-efficient orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing," Optics Expr. 13, 10003-10009 (2005).

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, C. Qianling, J. H. Leveque, III"Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1412 (2005).

2004 (2)

A. F. Molisch, M. Z. Win, "MIMO systems with antenna selection," IEEE Microw. Mag. 5, 46-56 (2004).

A. J. Paulraj, D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, H. Bolcskei, "An overview of MIMO communications—A key to gigabit wireless," Proc. IEEE 92, 198-218 (2004).

2002 (1)

I. Koffman, V. Roman, "Broadband wireless access solutions based on OFDM access in IEEE 802.16," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 96-103 (2002).

2001 (2)

Y. Li, L. J. Cimini, Jr."Bounds on the interchannel interference of OFDM in time-varying impairments," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 401-404 (2001).

A. Garcia Armada, "Understanding the effects of phase noise in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)," IEEE Trans. Broadcasting 47, 153-159 (2001).

1999 (1)

J. Armstrong, "Analysis of new and existing methods of reducing intercarrier interference due to carrier frequency offset in OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 365-369 (1999).

1998 (6)

J. Stott, "The effects of phase noise in COFDM," EBU Tech. Rev. 12-25 (1998).

L. Tomba, "On the effect of Wiener phase noise in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 580-583 (1998).

U. Reimers, "Digital video broadcasting," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 104-110 (1998).

J. H. Stott, "The how and why of COFDM," EBU Tech. Rev. 43-50 (1998).

G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, "On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas," Wireless Pers. Commun. 6, 311-335 (1998).

C.-L. Liu, "Impacts of I/Q imbalance on QPSK-OFDM-QAM detection," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 44, 984-989 (1998).

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).

1996 (1)

J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, "Multiple-subcarrier modulation for nondirected wireless infrared communication," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 538-546 (1996).

1995 (2)

W. Y. Zou, Y. Wu, "COFDM: An overview," IEEE Trans. Broadcasting 41, 1-8 (1995).

T. Pollet, M. Van Bladel, M. Moeneclaey, "BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).

1991 (1)

J. S. Chow, J. C. Tu, J. M. Cioffi, "A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).

1990 (1)

J. A. C. Bingham, "Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: An idea whose time has come," IEEE Commun. Mag. 28, 5-14 (1990).

1987 (1)

R. Lassalle, M. Alard, "Principles of modulation and channel coding for digital broadcasting for mobile receivers," EBU Tech. Rev. 168-190 (1987).

1985 (1)

L. J. Cimini, Jr."Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IEEE Trans. Commun. CM-33, 665-675 (1985).

EBU Tech. Rev. (1)

R. Lassalle, M. Alard, "Principles of modulation and channel coding for digital broadcasting for mobile receivers," EBU Tech. Rev. 168-190 (1987).

EBU Tech. Rev. (2)

J. H. Stott, "The how and why of COFDM," EBU Tech. Rev. 43-50 (1998).

J. Stott, "The effects of phase noise in COFDM," EBU Tech. Rev. 12-25 (1998).

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-588 (2006).

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Armstrong, A. J. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 42, 370-371 (2006).

W. Shieh, W. Chen, R. S. Tucker, "Polarisation mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).

IEE Proc.–Optoelectron. (1)

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "Adaptive OFDM system for communications over the indoor wireless optical channel," IEE Proc.–Optoelectron. 153, 139-144 (2006).

IEE Proc.—Optoelectronics (1)

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel," IEE Proc.—Optoelectronics 152, 199-204 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, B. Jalali, "Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 57-63 (2007).

J. A. C. Bingham, "Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: An idea whose time has come," IEEE Commun. Mag. 28, 5-14 (1990).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, "Multiple-subcarrier modulation for nondirected wireless infrared communication," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 538-546 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. P. T. Lau, X. Lei, W. Ting, "Performance of receivers and detection algorithms for modal multiplexing in multimode fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1087-1089 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Broadcasting (1)

W. Y. Zou, Y. Wu, "COFDM: An overview," IEEE Trans. Broadcasting 41, 1-8 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundamental Theory Applicat. (1)

D. Dardari, "Joint clip and quantization effects characterization in OFDM receivers," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I: Fundamental Theory Applicat. 53, 1741-1748 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

T. Pollet, M. Van Bladel, M. Moeneclaey, "BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, C. Qianling, J. H. Leveque, III"Free-space optical MIMO transmission with Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1412 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

N. Letzepis, I. Holland, W. Cowley, "The Gaussian free space optical MIMO channel with Q-ary pulse position modulation," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 1744-1753 (2008).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

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