Abstract

In this paper, we show the influence of intrachannel crosstalk in an optical switch network. The intrachannel crosstalk is mainly due to a signal that is not sufficiently blocked by the optical switch. The signal has a broadband spectrum and causes coherent crosstalk at the optical switching node. We investigate analytically the relationship between the channel isolation of the optical switching node that the optical switch network comprises and the crosstalk penalty due to the broadband signal. We confirm experimentally that the relationship is suited to the optical switch network that emulates an optical cross-connect system. We also show experimentally that it is important to use the optical switch with a high channel isolation level in the entire range of the signal bandwidth in order to suppress the impairment due to the crosstalk. We confirm that in a 50-GHz spaced system, a 44-Gb/s return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift-keying signal is sufficiently transmitted without a crosstalk penalty through 24 optical switching nodes, comprising wavelength selective filters with a high channel isolation level in the entire range of the signal bandwidth.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, A. F. Elrefaie, "Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave network," Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 657-660 (1994).
  2. Y. Shen, K. Lu, W. Gu, "Coherent and incoherent crosstalk in WDM optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 759-764 (1999).
  3. H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on N$\,\times\,$N optical interconnection," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1097-1105 (1996).
  4. J. Zhou, R. Cadcddu, E. Casaccia, C. Cavazzoni, M. J. O'Mahony, "Crosstalk in multiwavelength optical cross-connect," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1423-1435 (1996).
  5. J. D. Downie, A. B. Ruffin, "Analysis of signal distrotion and crosstalk penalties induced by optical filters in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1876-1886 (2003).
  6. M. Gustavsson, L. Gillner, C. P. Larsen, "Statistical analysis of interferometric crosstalk: Theory and optical network examples," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2006-2019 (1997).
  7. K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L. K. Chen, "Exact analysis of homodyne crosstalk induced penalty in WDM networks," Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 457-458 (1998).
  8. K.-P. Ho, "Analysis of co-channel crosstalk interference in optical networks," Electron. Lett. 34, 383-385 (1998).
  9. H. K. Kim, S. Chandrasekhar, "Dependence of in-band crosstalk penalty on the signal quality in optical network systems," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1273-1274 (2000).
  10. N. S. Moon, T. Sakamoto, Y. Takushima, K. Kikuchi, "Experimental verification of Gaussian approximation model of multiple intraband crosstalk in wavelength-division multiplexed networks using recirculating fiber loop," Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1038-1040 (2001).
  11. S. Frisken, "Advances in liquid crystal on silicon wavelength selective switching," Proc. OFC 2007 () pp. 1-3.
  12. J.-C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah, H. Toshiyoshi, M. C. Wu, "Wavelength-selective switch with long-term stability and repeatability," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1041-1043 (2004).
  13. B. P. Keyworth, "ROADM subsystem & technologies," Proc. OFC 2005 () pp. 4.
  14. X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1211 (2004).
  15. X. Liu, R. C. Giles, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, "High tolerance to coherent crosstalk of differential-phase-shift-keying," Proc. OFC 2004 () pp. 3.
  16. A. Agrawal, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, R. Menendez, J. Jackel, S. Etemad, "Impact of coherent crosstalk on DQPSK in a coherent OCDM system," Proc. OFC 2008 (2008) pp. 1-3.
  17. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998) pp. 204.
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  19. J. C. Attard, J. E. Mitchell, C. J. Rasmussen, "Performance analysis of interferometric noise due to unequally powered interferers in optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1692-1703 (2005).
  20. T. Zami, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, "Crosstalk analysis applied to wavelength selective switch," Proc. OFC 2006 () pp. 3.
  21. T. Zami, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, M. Lefrancois, H. Mardoyan, "Comparative study of crosstalk created in 50 GHz-spaced wavelength selective switch for various modulation formats at 43 Gbit/s," ECOC 2006 () Paper We3.P.81.
  22. T. Zami, A. Morea, F. Leplingard, N. Brogard, "The relevant impact of the physical parameters uncertainties when dimensioning an optical core transparent network," ECOC 2008 (2006).
  23. T. Zami, B. Lavigne, M. Lefrancois, J.-M. Rainsant, L. Piriou, "Why are dense WDM transparent networks more tolerant than expected to in-band crosstalk ?," OFC2009 (2009).
  24. I. T. Monroy, E. Tangdiongga, R. Jonker, H. de Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction by phase scrambling," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 637-645 (2000).

2005 (2)

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Coherent crosstalk in ultradense WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1734-1744 (2005).

J. C. Attard, J. E. Mitchell, C. J. Rasmussen, "Performance analysis of interferometric noise due to unequally powered interferers in optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1692-1703 (2005).

2004 (2)

J.-C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah, H. Toshiyoshi, M. C. Wu, "Wavelength-selective switch with long-term stability and repeatability," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1041-1043 (2004).

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1211 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. D. Downie, A. B. Ruffin, "Analysis of signal distrotion and crosstalk penalties induced by optical filters in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1876-1886 (2003).

2001 (1)

N. S. Moon, T. Sakamoto, Y. Takushima, K. Kikuchi, "Experimental verification of Gaussian approximation model of multiple intraband crosstalk in wavelength-division multiplexed networks using recirculating fiber loop," Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1038-1040 (2001).

2000 (2)

I. T. Monroy, E. Tangdiongga, R. Jonker, H. de Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction by phase scrambling," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 637-645 (2000).

H. K. Kim, S. Chandrasekhar, "Dependence of in-band crosstalk penalty on the signal quality in optical network systems," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1273-1274 (2000).

1999 (1)

Y. Shen, K. Lu, W. Gu, "Coherent and incoherent crosstalk in WDM optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 759-764 (1999).

1998 (2)

K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L. K. Chen, "Exact analysis of homodyne crosstalk induced penalty in WDM networks," Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 457-458 (1998).

K.-P. Ho, "Analysis of co-channel crosstalk interference in optical networks," Electron. Lett. 34, 383-385 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. Gustavsson, L. Gillner, C. P. Larsen, "Statistical analysis of interferometric crosstalk: Theory and optical network examples," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2006-2019 (1997).

1996 (2)

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on N$\,\times\,$N optical interconnection," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1097-1105 (1996).

J. Zhou, R. Cadcddu, E. Casaccia, C. Cavazzoni, M. J. O'Mahony, "Crosstalk in multiwavelength optical cross-connect," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1423-1435 (1996).

1994 (1)

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, A. F. Elrefaie, "Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave network," Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 657-660 (1994).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K.-P. Ho, "Analysis of co-channel crosstalk interference in optical networks," Electron. Lett. 34, 383-385 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (8)

Y. Shen, K. Lu, W. Gu, "Coherent and incoherent crosstalk in WDM optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 759-764 (1999).

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on N$\,\times\,$N optical interconnection," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1097-1105 (1996).

J. Zhou, R. Cadcddu, E. Casaccia, C. Cavazzoni, M. J. O'Mahony, "Crosstalk in multiwavelength optical cross-connect," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1423-1435 (1996).

J. D. Downie, A. B. Ruffin, "Analysis of signal distrotion and crosstalk penalties induced by optical filters in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1876-1886 (2003).

M. Gustavsson, L. Gillner, C. P. Larsen, "Statistical analysis of interferometric crosstalk: Theory and optical network examples," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2006-2019 (1997).

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Coherent crosstalk in ultradense WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1734-1744 (2005).

J. C. Attard, J. E. Mitchell, C. J. Rasmussen, "Performance analysis of interferometric noise due to unequally powered interferers in optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1692-1703 (2005).

I. T. Monroy, E. Tangdiongga, R. Jonker, H. de Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction by phase scrambling," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 637-645 (2000).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, A. F. Elrefaie, "Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave network," Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 657-660 (1994).

J.-C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah, H. Toshiyoshi, M. C. Wu, "Wavelength-selective switch with long-term stability and repeatability," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1041-1043 (2004).

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1211 (2004).

K.-P. Ho, C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L. K. Chen, "Exact analysis of homodyne crosstalk induced penalty in WDM networks," Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 457-458 (1998).

H. K. Kim, S. Chandrasekhar, "Dependence of in-band crosstalk penalty on the signal quality in optical network systems," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1273-1274 (2000).

N. S. Moon, T. Sakamoto, Y. Takushima, K. Kikuchi, "Experimental verification of Gaussian approximation model of multiple intraband crosstalk in wavelength-division multiplexed networks using recirculating fiber loop," Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1038-1040 (2001).

Other (9)

S. Frisken, "Advances in liquid crystal on silicon wavelength selective switching," Proc. OFC 2007 () pp. 1-3.

X. Liu, R. C. Giles, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, "High tolerance to coherent crosstalk of differential-phase-shift-keying," Proc. OFC 2004 () pp. 3.

A. Agrawal, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, R. Menendez, J. Jackel, S. Etemad, "Impact of coherent crosstalk on DQPSK in a coherent OCDM system," Proc. OFC 2008 (2008) pp. 1-3.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 1998) pp. 204.

T. Zami, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, "Crosstalk analysis applied to wavelength selective switch," Proc. OFC 2006 () pp. 3.

T. Zami, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, M. Lefrancois, H. Mardoyan, "Comparative study of crosstalk created in 50 GHz-spaced wavelength selective switch for various modulation formats at 43 Gbit/s," ECOC 2006 () Paper We3.P.81.

T. Zami, A. Morea, F. Leplingard, N. Brogard, "The relevant impact of the physical parameters uncertainties when dimensioning an optical core transparent network," ECOC 2008 (2006).

T. Zami, B. Lavigne, M. Lefrancois, J.-M. Rainsant, L. Piriou, "Why are dense WDM transparent networks more tolerant than expected to in-band crosstalk ?," OFC2009 (2009).

B. P. Keyworth, "ROADM subsystem & technologies," Proc. OFC 2005 () pp. 4.

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