Abstract

We describe a silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) with low channel-dependent loss variation achieved by using mode-field converters designed with the wavefront matching method. This mode-field converter converts the fundamental mode of the arrayed waveguide into the field distribution with a flat-top far field at the interface between the slab and output waveguides. We applied our mode-field converters to an AWG with a 100-GHz channel spacing and reduced the loss deviations experimentally from 2.4 to 0.7 dB over one free spectral range. Moreover, we confirmed that the introduction of our mode-field converters had no adverse effects on the AWG demultiplexing characteristics. It is notable that the loss uniformity was improved solely by replacing the conventional tapered waveguide between the arrayed waveguides and output slab waveguide with our mode-field converter without sacrificing the fabrication manageability or AWG design flexibility.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).
  2. C. R. Doerr, K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).
  3. Y. P. Li, Optical Device Having Low Insertion Loss U.S. Patent 5 745 618 (1998).
  4. A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
  5. C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, "Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 479-489 (1989).
  6. K. Okamoto, H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, A. Sugita, Y. Ohmori, "Design and fabrication of integrated 8 $\times$8 star coupler," Electron. Lett. 27, 774-775 (1991).
  7. G. H. Song, M. Y. Park, "Bessel-function analysis of the optimized star coupler for uniform power splitting," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 1529-1544 (2004).
  8. C. Dragone, C. R. Doerr, P. Bernasconi, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, "Low-loss N$\,\times\,$N wavelength router," Electron. Lett. 41, 763-764 (2005).
  9. K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, A. Sugita, "Arrayed-waveguide grating with uniform loss properties over the entire range of wavelength channels," Opt. Lett. 31, 459-461 (2006).
  10. Z. Sheng, D. Dai, S. He, "Improve channel uniformity of an Si-nanowire AWG demultiplexer by using dual-tapered auxiliary waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3001-3007 (2007).
  11. T. Hashimoto, T. Saida, I. Ogawa, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, "Optical circuit design based on a wavefront-matching method," Opt. Lett. 30, 2560-2562 (2005).
  12. Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "New optical waveguide design based on wavefront matching method," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3511-3518 (2007).
  13. Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, M. Itoh, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "Loss reduction of arrayed waveguide grating with mode converters designed by wavefront matching method," Electron. Lett. 42, 1300-1301 (2006).
  14. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguide (Academic, 2005).
  15. H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707-709 (1993).
  16. K. Maru, M. Okawa, Y. Abe, T. Hakuta, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, "Silica-based 2.5%-$\Delta$arrayed waveguide grating using simple polarization compensation method with core width adjustment," Electron. Lett. 43, 26-27 (2007).

2007 (3)

Z. Sheng, D. Dai, S. He, "Improve channel uniformity of an Si-nanowire AWG demultiplexer by using dual-tapered auxiliary waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3001-3007 (2007).

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "New optical waveguide design based on wavefront matching method," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3511-3518 (2007).

K. Maru, M. Okawa, Y. Abe, T. Hakuta, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, "Silica-based 2.5%-$\Delta$arrayed waveguide grating using simple polarization compensation method with core width adjustment," Electron. Lett. 43, 26-27 (2007).

2006 (3)

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, A. Sugita, "Arrayed-waveguide grating with uniform loss properties over the entire range of wavelength channels," Opt. Lett. 31, 459-461 (2006).

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, M. Itoh, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "Loss reduction of arrayed waveguide grating with mode converters designed by wavefront matching method," Electron. Lett. 42, 1300-1301 (2006).

C. R. Doerr, K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).

2005 (2)

T. Hashimoto, T. Saida, I. Ogawa, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, "Optical circuit design based on a wavefront-matching method," Opt. Lett. 30, 2560-2562 (2005).

C. Dragone, C. R. Doerr, P. Bernasconi, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, "Low-loss N$\,\times\,$N wavelength router," Electron. Lett. 41, 763-764 (2005).

2004 (1)

G. H. Song, M. Y. Park, "Bessel-function analysis of the optimized star coupler for uniform power splitting," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 1529-1544 (2004).

2002 (1)

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).

2000 (1)

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).

1993 (1)

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707-709 (1993).

1991 (1)

K. Okamoto, H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, A. Sugita, Y. Ohmori, "Design and fabrication of integrated 8 $\times$8 star coupler," Electron. Lett. 27, 774-775 (1991).

1989 (1)

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, "Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 479-489 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (4)

K. Okamoto, H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, A. Sugita, Y. Ohmori, "Design and fabrication of integrated 8 $\times$8 star coupler," Electron. Lett. 27, 774-775 (1991).

C. Dragone, C. R. Doerr, P. Bernasconi, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, "Low-loss N$\,\times\,$N wavelength router," Electron. Lett. 41, 763-764 (2005).

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, M. Tamura, M. Itoh, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "Loss reduction of arrayed waveguide grating with mode converters designed by wavefront matching method," Electron. Lett. 42, 1300-1301 (2006).

K. Maru, M. Okawa, Y. Abe, T. Hakuta, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, "Silica-based 2.5%-$\Delta$arrayed waveguide grating using simple polarization compensation method with core width adjustment," Electron. Lett. 43, 26-27 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, "Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 479-489 (1989).

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707-709 (1993).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, T. Hashimoto, H. Takahashi, "New optical waveguide design based on wavefront matching method," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3511-3518 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

G. H. Song, M. Y. Park, "Bessel-function analysis of the optimized star coupler for uniform power splitting," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 1529-1544 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguide (Academic, 2005).

Y. P. Li, Optical Device Having Low Insertion Loss U.S. Patent 5 745 618 (1998).

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