Abstract

Free-space optical (FSO) communication suffers from several challenges in practical deployment; the major of them is fading or scintillation. To overcome such limitations, spatial diversity based on MIMO techniques has been proposed for FSO systems. User Cooperation diversity is a new form of spatial diversity which is introduced to overcome some limitations of MIMO structures. Although the promising effects of cooperative transmission in RF communications have greatly been considered so far, there have been a few notable research on cooperative diversity in FSO. In this paper, we first consider a 3-way FSO communication setup, in which the cooperative protocol can be applied to achieve the spatial diversity without much increase in hardware, compared to their regular transmission. Then, we introduce different cooperative strategies and investigate their bit error rate (BER) performance in the presence of shot noise, using the photon-count method. We compare the results with those of the direct path link (non-cooperative scheme) and the two transmitters case, which are the upper and lower bounds on the BER of the cooperative scheme, respectively. The results illustrate the advantages of cooperation under a number of different scenarios for realistic SNRs.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. D. Kedar, S. Arnon, "Urban optical wireless communication networks: The main challenges and possible solutions," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S2-S7 (2004).
  2. E. W. B. R. Strickland, M. J. Lavan, V. Chan, "Effects of fog on the bit-error rate of a free space laser communication system," Appl. Opt. 38, 424-431 (1999).
  3. H. Willebrand, B. Ghuman, Free Space Optics: Enabling Optical Connectivity in Today's Networks (Sams Publishing, 2002).
  4. L. Andrews, R. Phillips, C. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE Press, 2001).
  5. X. Zhu, J. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).
  6. I. Kim, E. Woodbridge, V. Chan, B. Strickland, "Scintillation measurements performed during the limited-visibility lasercom experiment," Proc. SPIE (1998) pp. 209-220.
  7. Z. Xiaoming, J. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1233-1239 (2003).
  8. M. Uysal, J. Li, M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 1229-1233 (2006).
  9. E. Lee, V. Chan, "Part 1: Optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).
  10. S. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. Leveque, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with${\$}Q{\$}$-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1412 (2005).
  11. S. Navidpour, M. Uysal, M. Kavehrad, "BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).
  12. A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, B. Aazhang, Q. Inc, C. Campbell, "User cooperation diversity—Part I: System description," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1927-1938 (2003).
  13. A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, B. Aazhang, Q. Inc, C. Campbell, "User cooperation diversity—Part II: Implementation aspects and performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1939-1948 (2003).
  14. J. Laneman, D. Tse, G. Wornell, "Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 50, 3062-3080 (2004).
  15. M. Safari, M. Uysal, "Cooperative diversity over log-normal fading channels: Performance analysis and optimization," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 1963-1972 (2008) Part 2.
  16. M. Safari, M. Uysal, "Relay-assisted free-space optical communication," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 5441-5449 (2008).
  17. V. Chan, "Free-space optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4750-4762 (2006).
  18. F. Liu, U. Vishkin, S. Milner, "Bootstrapping free-space optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 13-22 (2006).
  19. F. Xu, A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, "Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links," Opt. Exp. 17, 872-887 (2009).
  20. D. de Wolf, "Strong irradiance fluctuations in turbulent air: Plane waves," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 171-179 (1973).
  21. Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 1978).
  22. G. Einarsson, Principles of Lightwave Communications (Wiley, 1996).
  23. T. Hunter, A. Nosratinia, "Diversity through coded cooperation," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 283-289 (2006).
  24. S. Lin, D. Costello, Error Control Coding (Prentice Hall, 2004).
  25. S. Kallel, C. Leung, "Efficient ARQ schemes with multiple copy decoding," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 642-650 (1992).
  26. E. Malkamaki, H. Leib, "Evaluating the performance of convolutional codes over block fading channels," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 1643-1646 (1999).

2009 (1)

F. Xu, A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, "Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links," Opt. Exp. 17, 872-887 (2009).

2008 (2)

M. Safari, M. Uysal, "Cooperative diversity over log-normal fading channels: Performance analysis and optimization," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 1963-1972 (2008) Part 2.

M. Safari, M. Uysal, "Relay-assisted free-space optical communication," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 5441-5449 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. Navidpour, M. Uysal, M. Kavehrad, "BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).

2006 (4)

M. Uysal, J. Li, M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 1229-1233 (2006).

V. Chan, "Free-space optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4750-4762 (2006).

F. Liu, U. Vishkin, S. Milner, "Bootstrapping free-space optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 13-22 (2006).

T. Hunter, A. Nosratinia, "Diversity through coded cooperation," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 283-289 (2006).

2005 (1)

S. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. Leveque, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with${\$}Q{\$}$-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1412 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. Laneman, D. Tse, G. Wornell, "Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 50, 3062-3080 (2004).

E. Lee, V. Chan, "Part 1: Optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).

D. Kedar, S. Arnon, "Urban optical wireless communication networks: The main challenges and possible solutions," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S2-S7 (2004).

2003 (3)

Z. Xiaoming, J. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1233-1239 (2003).

A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, B. Aazhang, Q. Inc, C. Campbell, "User cooperation diversity—Part I: System description," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1927-1938 (2003).

A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, B. Aazhang, Q. Inc, C. Campbell, "User cooperation diversity—Part II: Implementation aspects and performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1939-1948 (2003).

2002 (1)

X. Zhu, J. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

1999 (2)

E. W. B. R. Strickland, M. J. Lavan, V. Chan, "Effects of fog on the bit-error rate of a free space laser communication system," Appl. Opt. 38, 424-431 (1999).

E. Malkamaki, H. Leib, "Evaluating the performance of convolutional codes over block fading channels," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 1643-1646 (1999).

1992 (1)

S. Kallel, C. Leung, "Efficient ARQ schemes with multiple copy decoding," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 642-650 (1992).

1973 (1)

D. de Wolf, "Strong irradiance fluctuations in turbulent air: Plane waves," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 171-179 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. Kedar, S. Arnon, "Urban optical wireless communication networks: The main challenges and possible solutions," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, S2-S7 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

E. Lee, V. Chan, "Part 1: Optical communication over the clear turbulent atmospheric channel using diversity," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, 1896-1906 (2004).

F. Liu, U. Vishkin, S. Milner, "Bootstrapping free-space optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 13-22 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (6)

A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, B. Aazhang, Q. Inc, C. Campbell, "User cooperation diversity—Part I: System description," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1927-1938 (2003).

A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, B. Aazhang, Q. Inc, C. Campbell, "User cooperation diversity—Part II: Implementation aspects and performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1939-1948 (2003).

S. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, J. Leveque, "Free-space optical MIMO transmission with${\$}Q{\$}$-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1402-1412 (2005).

Z. Xiaoming, J. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51, 1233-1239 (2003).

X. Zhu, J. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

S. Kallel, C. Leung, "Efficient ARQ schemes with multiple copy decoding," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 642-650 (1992).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (2)

E. Malkamaki, H. Leib, "Evaluating the performance of convolutional codes over block fading channels," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 45, 1643-1646 (1999).

J. Laneman, D. Tse, G. Wornell, "Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 50, 3062-3080 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (5)

M. Safari, M. Uysal, "Cooperative diversity over log-normal fading channels: Performance analysis and optimization," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 1963-1972 (2008) Part 2.

M. Safari, M. Uysal, "Relay-assisted free-space optical communication," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 5441-5449 (2008).

M. Uysal, J. Li, M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 1229-1233 (2006).

S. Navidpour, M. Uysal, M. Kavehrad, "BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6, 2813-2819 (2007).

T. Hunter, A. Nosratinia, "Diversity through coded cooperation," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 283-289 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

V. Chan, "Free-space optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4750-4762 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

D. de Wolf, "Strong irradiance fluctuations in turbulent air: Plane waves," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 171-179 (1973).

Opt. Exp. (1)

F. Xu, A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, S. Bourennane, "Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links," Opt. Exp. 17, 872-887 (2009).

Other (6)

Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 1978).

G. Einarsson, Principles of Lightwave Communications (Wiley, 1996).

I. Kim, E. Woodbridge, V. Chan, B. Strickland, "Scintillation measurements performed during the limited-visibility lasercom experiment," Proc. SPIE (1998) pp. 209-220.

H. Willebrand, B. Ghuman, Free Space Optics: Enabling Optical Connectivity in Today's Networks (Sams Publishing, 2002).

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, C. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE Press, 2001).

S. Lin, D. Costello, Error Control Coding (Prentice Hall, 2004).

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