Abstract

A frequency modulated (FM) analog optical link using an FM discriminator is analyzed. Figures-of-merit are derived, including expressions for the second-order (OIP2) and third-order intercept points (OIP3), spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and noise figure (NF). It is found that a discriminator with linear field transmission and constant group delay will produce no third-order or higher-order distortions, and balanced detection will suppress the remaining second-order distortion. Low biasing the discriminator is found not to improve the NF of the link. Residual intensity modulation (IM) of the laser is shown to significantly increase the link's distortion. A discriminator using tenth-order finite-impulse response (FIR) filters implemented in planar lightwave circuits (PLC) is proposed and shown to improve OIP3 by 31 dB over a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) discriminator.

© 2009 IEEE

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2008 (2)

S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Segawa, N. Fujiwara, Y. Shibata, H. Oohashi, H. Yasaka, H. Suzuki, "Extended transmission reach using optical filtering of frequency-modulated widely tunable SSG-DBR laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2294-296 (2008).

P. Driessen, T. Darcie, J. Zhang, "Analysis of a class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2740-2747 (2008).

2007 (2)

V. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. Devgan, J. McKinney, K. Williams, "Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1978-1985 (2007).

J. Capmany, D. Novak, "Microwave photonics combines two worlds," Nat. Photon. 1, 319-330 (2007).

2006 (1)

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).

2005 (1)

G. Chen, J. Kang, J. Khurgin, "Frequency discriminator based on ring-assisted fiber Sagnac filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 109-111 (2005).

2004 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).

2003 (1)

P. P. Smyth, "Optical radio—A review of a radical new technology for wireless access infrastructure," BT Technol. J. 21, 22-31 (2003).

2002 (2)

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, F. Choa, "Compact linearized optical FM discriminator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 384-386 (2002).

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, F.-S. Choa, "Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1136-1138 (2002).

1999 (1)

D. Tishinin, P. Dapkus, A. Bond, I. Kim, C. Lin, J. O'Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1003-1005 (1999).

1997 (1)

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, G. Betts, "Direct-detection analog optical links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1375-1383 (1997).

1994 (1)

R. Kalman, J. Fan, L. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range of coherent analog fiber-optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1263-1277 (1994).

1992 (2)

W. Sorin, K. Chang, G. Conrad, P. Hernday, "Frequency domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 787-793 (1992).

B. Kumar, S. Roy, H. Shah, "On the design of FIR digital differentiators which are maximally linear at the frequency $\pi/{\rm p}, {\rm p}\varepsilon \{{\rm positive\ integers}\}$," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 2334-2338 (1992).

1989 (2)

B. Kumar, S. C. D. Roy, "Maximally linear FIR digital differentiators for midband frequencies," Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl. 17, 21-27 (1989).

O. Ishida, H. Toba, Y. Tohmori, "Pure frequency modulation of a multielectrode distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 156-158 (1989).

1988 (1)

B. Kumar, S. Dutta Roy, "Design of digital differentiators for low frequencies," Proc. IEEE 76, 287-289 (1988).

1984 (1)

B. Moslehi, J. Goodman, M. Tur, H. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).

1964 (1)

1963 (1)

S. E. Harris, "Conversion of FM light to AM light using birefringent crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 47-49 (1963).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. E. Harris, "Conversion of FM light to AM light using birefringent crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 47-49 (1963).

BT Technol. J. (1)

P. P. Smyth, "Optical radio—A review of a radical new technology for wireless access infrastructure," BT Technol. J. 21, 22-31 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Segawa, N. Fujiwara, Y. Shibata, H. Oohashi, H. Yasaka, H. Suzuki, "Extended transmission reach using optical filtering of frequency-modulated widely tunable SSG-DBR laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2294-296 (2008).

O. Ishida, H. Toba, Y. Tohmori, "Pure frequency modulation of a multielectrode distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 156-158 (1989).

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, F. Choa, "Compact linearized optical FM discriminator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 384-386 (2002).

X. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, F.-S. Choa, "Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1136-1138 (2002).

G. Chen, J. Kang, J. Khurgin, "Frequency discriminator based on ring-assisted fiber Sagnac filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 109-111 (2005).

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).

D. Tishinin, P. Dapkus, A. Bond, I. Kim, C. Lin, J. O'Brien, "Vertical resonant couplers with precise coupling efficiency control fabricated by wafer bonding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1003-1005 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

V. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. Devgan, J. McKinney, K. Williams, "Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1978-1985 (2007).

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, G. Betts, "Direct-detection analog optical links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1375-1383 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

B. Kumar, S. Roy, H. Shah, "On the design of FIR digital differentiators which are maximally linear at the frequency $\pi/{\rm p}, {\rm p}\varepsilon \{{\rm positive\ integers}\}$," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 2334-2338 (1992).

Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl. (1)

B. Kumar, S. C. D. Roy, "Maximally linear FIR digital differentiators for midband frequencies," Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl. 17, 21-27 (1989).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).

R. Kalman, J. Fan, L. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range of coherent analog fiber-optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1263-1277 (1994).

P. Driessen, T. Darcie, J. Zhang, "Analysis of a class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2740-2747 (2008).

W. Sorin, K. Chang, G. Conrad, P. Hernday, "Frequency domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 787-793 (1992).

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Capmany, D. Novak, "Microwave photonics combines two worlds," Nat. Photon. 1, 319-330 (2007).

Proc. IEEE (2)

B. Moslehi, J. Goodman, M. Tur, H. Shaw, "Fiber-optic lattice signal processing," Proc. IEEE 72, 909-930 (1984).

B. Kumar, S. Dutta Roy, "Design of digital differentiators for low frequencies," Proc. IEEE 76, 287-289 (1988).

Other (9)

C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis. (Wiley, 1999).

M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, P. Krummrich, Optical Communication Theory and Techniques (Springer, 2005) pp. 181-187.

S. Pappert, C. Sun, R. Orazi, T. Weiner, "Microwave fiber optic links for shipboard antenna applications," Proc. 2000 IEEE Int. Conf. Phased Array Syst. Technol. pp. 345-348.

J. M. Roth, Frequency modulated analog fiber optic links using direct detection Master's thesis MITCambridge (1997).

Q. S. Xiang, Y. Zhao, F.-S. Choa, "A high-performance RF-lightwave transmitter for analog fiber links," Proc. LEOS 2000, 13th Annu. Meeting pp. 138-139.

J. Chen, R. Brown, "Novel optical frequency discriminator with ‘perfect’ linearity," Proc. OFC (2000) pp. 329-331.

T. Darcie, J. Zhang, P. Driessen, J. Eun, "Demonstration of a class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation and complementary fiber-Bragg-grating discriminators," OFC/NFOEC AnaheimCA (2006) Postdeadline Paper PDP38..

J. Zhang, T. Darcie, "Low-biased microwave-photonic link using optical frequency or phase modulation and fiber-Bragg-grating discriminator," OFC/NFOEC AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWG1.

J. Zhang, T. Darcie, J. J. Eun, "High-performance passive microwave-photonic link for antenna remoting using truncated single-sideband optical phase detection," OFC/NFOEC (2007).

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