Abstract

Ultracompact directional couplers (DCs) based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) are analyzed using the effective index method (EIM), with the coupling, both in the parallel interaction region and in- and out-coupling regions, being taken into account. Near-field characterization of fabricated DCs performed with a scanning near-field optical microscope verifies the applicability of the EIM in the analysis and design of DLSPPW-based wavelength-selective DCs. The design approach applicable to a large variety of integrated optical waveguides is developed, enabling the realization of DCs in which optical signals at two different wavelengths are coupled into two separate output channels. The developed approach ensures minimization of the crosstalk and overall DC length via simultaneous adjustment of the waveguide separation and length of the interaction region. As an example, the design of a DLSPPW-based DC for complete separation of telecommunication signals at the wavelengths $\lambda=1400$ nm and $\lambda=1600$ nm between two output channels separated by 6 $\mu$m is worked out, resulting in the total device length of 52.3 $\mu$m. In addition, the design of an ultracompact DLSPPW-based DC waveguide crossing that ensures a very low crosstalk over a large wavelength band in the telecommunication range is considered.

© 2009 IEEE

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2009 (4)

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, "Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides," New J. Phys. 11, 015002-1-015002-10 (2009).

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, "Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111-1-051111-2 (2009).

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators," Opt. Exp. 17, 2968-2975 (2009).

Z. Chen, T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Wavelength-selective directional coupling with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides," Opt. Lett. 34, 310-312 (2009).

2008 (6)

A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, "Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 78, 045425-1-045425-8 (2008).

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124-1-011124-3 (2008).

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, A. V. Zayats, "Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 78, 165431-1-165431-8 (2008).

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, "Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 13585-13592 (2008).

G. Veronis, S. Fan, "Crosstalk between three-dimensional plasmonic slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 2129-2140 (2008).

D. K. Gramotnev, K. C. Vernon, D. F. P. Pile, "Directional coupler using gap plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 93, 99-106 (2008).

2007 (6)

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Coupling between long range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101-1-141101-3 (2007).

S. H. Chang, T. C. Chiu, C.-Y. Tai, "Propagation characteristics of the supermode based on two coupled semi-infinite rib plasmonic waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 1755-1761 (2007).

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 75, 245405-1-245405-9 (2007).

A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, "Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101-1-211101-3 (2007).

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102-1-243102-3 (2007).

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111- (2007).

2006 (5)

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006).

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104- (2006).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011110-1-011110-3 (2006).

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).

2005 (2)

L. Liu, Z. Han, S. He, "Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration," Opt. Exp. 13, 6645-6650 (2005).

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).

2004 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).

2003 (3)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nature Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

2002 (1)

I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, "Channel polaritons," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 66, 035403-1-035403-13 (2002).

2000 (1)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 61, 10484-10503 (2000).

1998 (1)

Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

D. K. Gramotnev, K. C. Vernon, D. F. P. Pile, "Directional coupler using gap plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 93, 99-106 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104- (2006).

A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, "Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101-1-211101-3 (2007).

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102-1-243102-3 (2007).

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124-1-011124-3 (2008).

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111- (2007).

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, "Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051111-1-051111-2 (2009).

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011110-1-011110-3 (2006).

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Coupling between long range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101-1-141101-3 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).

Nature (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

Nature Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nature Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).

New J. Phys. (1)

A. Degiron, S.-Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, "Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides," New J. Phys. 11, 015002-1-015002-10 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (5)

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators," Opt. Exp. 17, 2968-2975 (2009).

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, "Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 13585-13592 (2008).

L. Liu, Z. Han, S. He, "Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration," Opt. Exp. 13, 6645-6650 (2005).

G. Veronis, S. Fan, "Crosstalk between three-dimensional plasmonic slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 2129-2140 (2008).

S. H. Chang, T. C. Chiu, C.-Y. Tai, "Propagation characteristics of the supermode based on two coupled semi-infinite rib plasmonic waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 1755-1761 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter (5)

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 75, 245405-1-245405-9 (2007).

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, A. V. Zayats, "Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 78, 165431-1-165431-8 (2008).

A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, "Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 78, 045425-1-045425-8 (2008).

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 61, 10484-10503 (2000).

I. V. Novikov, A. A. Maradudin, "Channel polaritons," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 66, 035403-1-035403-13 (2002).

Other (4)

V. M. Agranovich, D. L. Mills, Surface Polaritons—Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces (North Holland, 1982).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

A. B. Buckman, Guided-Wave Photonics (Saunders, 1992).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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