Abstract

In this paper, we numerically investigate the lateral leakage loss behavior for TM-like modes in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides. If the waveguide width is set to satisfy a certain condition, the leakage loss of the TM-like mode leads to be a minimum. When utilizing TM-like modes in the ridge waveguides, it is the main drawback that the tolerance for the variations in the waveguide width and operation wavelength is too small. In this paper, we propose a novel ridge waveguide structure, where a dimple is introduced at the ridge region. It is shown from the finite-element analysis that the ridge waveguide with a dimple is both low loss and fabrication tolerant.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
  2. F. Ohno, K. Sasaki, A. Motegi, T. Baba, "Reduction in sidelobe level in ultracompact arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexer based on Si wire waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6126-6131 (2006).
  3. H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, S. Itabashi, "Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity," Opt. Exp. 16, 4872-4880 (2008).
  4. R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO$_{2}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
  5. S. P. Chan, C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, G. T. Reed, V. M. N. Passaro, "Single-mode and polarization-independent silicon-on-insulator waveguides with small cross section," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2103-2111 (2005).
  6. M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, "Polarization-dependent curvature loss in silicon rib waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1359-1362 (2006).
  7. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
  8. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
  9. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108-1-231108-3 (2005).
  10. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, T. L. Koch, "Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 429-431 (2007).
  11. R. Pafchek, R. Tummidi, J. Li, M. A. Webster, E. Chen, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator shallow-ridge TE and TM waveguides formed using thermal oxidation," Appl. Opt. 48, 958-963 (2009).
  12. T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, A. Mitchell, "Lateral leakage in TM-like whispering gallery mode of thin-ridge silicon-on-insulator disk resonators," Opt. Lett. 34, 980-982 (2009).
  13. T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, A. Mitchell, "Regorous modeling of lateral leakage loss in SOI thin-ridge waveguides and couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 486-488 (2009).
  14. A. A. Oliner, S. T. Peng, T. I. Hsu, A. Sanchez, "Guidance and leakage properties of a class of open dielectric waveguides: Part II—New physical effects," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 29, 855-869 (1981).
  15. K. Ogusu, "Optical strip waveguide: A detailed analysis including leaky modes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 73, 353-357 (1983).
  16. M. Koshiba, K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, "Reduced lateral leakage losses of TM-like modes in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," Opt. Lett. 33, 2008-2010 (2008).
  17. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).
  18. C. A. Barrios, M. Lipson, "Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide," Opt. Exp. 13, 10092-10101 (2005).
  19. P. Muellner, N. Finger, R. Hainberger, "Lateral leakage in symmetric SOI rib-type slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 287-294 (2008).
  20. N.-N. Feng, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 885-890 (2006).
  21. R. M. Pafchek, J. Li, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, "Low loss Si-SiO$_{2}$-Si 8-nm slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 353-355 (2009).
  22. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1626-1628 (2004).
  23. T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "Polarization-independent optical directional coupler based on slot waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 56-58 (2006).
  24. T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 23, 684-691 (2006).

2009 (4)

R. Pafchek, R. Tummidi, J. Li, M. A. Webster, E. Chen, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator shallow-ridge TE and TM waveguides formed using thermal oxidation," Appl. Opt. 48, 958-963 (2009).

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, A. Mitchell, "Lateral leakage in TM-like whispering gallery mode of thin-ridge silicon-on-insulator disk resonators," Opt. Lett. 34, 980-982 (2009).

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, A. Mitchell, "Regorous modeling of lateral leakage loss in SOI thin-ridge waveguides and couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 486-488 (2009).

R. M. Pafchek, J. Li, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, "Low loss Si-SiO$_{2}$-Si 8-nm slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 353-355 (2009).

2008 (3)

P. Muellner, N. Finger, R. Hainberger, "Lateral leakage in symmetric SOI rib-type slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 287-294 (2008).

M. Koshiba, K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, "Reduced lateral leakage losses of TM-like modes in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," Opt. Lett. 33, 2008-2010 (2008).

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, S. Itabashi, "Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity," Opt. Exp. 16, 4872-4880 (2008).

2007 (1)

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, T. L. Koch, "Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 429-431 (2007).

2006 (5)

F. Ohno, K. Sasaki, A. Motegi, T. Baba, "Reduction in sidelobe level in ultracompact arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexer based on Si wire waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6126-6131 (2006).

M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, "Polarization-dependent curvature loss in silicon rib waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1359-1362 (2006).

N.-N. Feng, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 885-890 (2006).

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "Polarization-independent optical directional coupler based on slot waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 56-58 (2006).

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 23, 684-691 (2006).

2005 (4)

C. A. Barrios, M. Lipson, "Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide," Opt. Exp. 13, 10092-10101 (2005).

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108-1-231108-3 (2005).

S. P. Chan, C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, G. T. Reed, V. M. N. Passaro, "Single-mode and polarization-independent silicon-on-insulator waveguides with small cross section," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2103-2111 (2005).

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1626-1628 (2004).

2002 (1)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

1997 (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).

1991 (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO$_{2}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).

1983 (1)

K. Ogusu, "Optical strip waveguide: A detailed analysis including leaky modes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 73, 353-357 (1983).

1981 (1)

A. A. Oliner, S. T. Peng, T. I. Hsu, A. Sanchez, "Guidance and leakage properties of a class of open dielectric waveguides: Part II—New physical effects," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 29, 855-869 (1981).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108-1-231108-3 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO$_{2}$," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

N.-N. Feng, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Optical field concentration in low-index waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 885-890 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Krause, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, "Polarization-dependent curvature loss in silicon rib waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1359-1362 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, T. L. Koch, "Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 429-431 (2007).

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, A. Mitchell, "Regorous modeling of lateral leakage loss in SOI thin-ridge waveguides and couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 486-488 (2009).

R. M. Pafchek, J. Li, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, "Low loss Si-SiO$_{2}$-Si 8-nm slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 353-355 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

A. A. Oliner, S. T. Peng, T. I. Hsu, A. Sanchez, "Guidance and leakage properties of a class of open dielectric waveguides: Part II—New physical effects," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 29, 855-869 (1981).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. P. Chan, C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, G. T. Reed, V. M. N. Passaro, "Single-mode and polarization-independent silicon-on-insulator waveguides with small cross section," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2103-2111 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

K. Ogusu, "Optical strip waveguide: A detailed analysis including leaky modes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 73, 353-357 (1983).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

T. Fujisawa, M. Koshiba, "All-optical logic gates based on nonlinear slot-waveguide couplers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 23, 684-691 (2006).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Ohno, K. Sasaki, A. Motegi, T. Baba, "Reduction in sidelobe level in ultracompact arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexer based on Si wire waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6126-6131 (2006).

Nature (3)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).

Opt. Exp. (3)

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, S. Itabashi, "Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity," Opt. Exp. 16, 4872-4880 (2008).

C. A. Barrios, M. Lipson, "Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide," Opt. Exp. 13, 10092-10101 (2005).

P. Muellner, N. Finger, R. Hainberger, "Lateral leakage in symmetric SOI rib-type slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 287-294 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (4)

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