Abstract

A novel miniature fiber-optic Fabry–Perot (F-P) refractive-index (RI) sensor machined by 157 nm laser is proposed. The sensor head consists of a micro air F-P cavity near the tip of a single-mode fiber with a micro channel on the fiber tip used as both inlet and outlet for medium under test. Thin films are coated at reflective interfaces of the F-P cavity as mirrors to ensure high optical contrast, respectively. A RI resolution of 1130.887 nm/RI unit (RIU) is achieved by experiment. Such a sensor has a number of outstanding advantages when compared with other fiber-optic RI sensors, such as very small, rigid, high resolution, excellent linearity, wide measurement range,

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Ansari, Q.-Y. Chen, "Fiber-optic refractive-index sensor for use in fresh concrete," Appl. Opt. 30, 4056-4059 (1991).
  2. R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, L. Zeni, "Design and analysis of an integrated antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide refractive-index sensor," Appl. Opt. 41, 70-73 (2002).
  3. G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, I. J. G. Sparrow, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, "Physical observation of single step UV-written integrated planar Bragg structures and their application as a refractive-index sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 5042-5045 (2005).
  4. J. Yang, L. Yang, C.-Q. Xu, C. Xu, W. Huang, Y. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, 6142-6147 (2006).
  5. J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, "Low-cost optical fiber refractive-index sensor based on core diameter mismatch," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1409-1413 (2006).
  6. J. Yang, L. Yang, C.-Q. Xu, Y. Li, "Optimization of cladding-structure-modified long-period-grating refractive-index sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 372-380 (2007).
  7. B. Rothenhausler, W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).
  8. O. Esteban, R. Alonso, M. C. Navarrete, A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Surface plasmon excitation in fiber-optics sensors: A novel theoretical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 448-453 (2002).
  9. D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro, "High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple-peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. 115, 227-231 (2006).
  10. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
  11. X. W. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
  12. J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, L. Y. Shao, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, M. A. Putnam, "In-line fiber etalon (ILFE) fiber-optic strain sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1256-1263 (1995).
  13. W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
  14. I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, "Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).
  15. N. Skivesen, A. Tetu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, "Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor," Opt. Exp. 15, 3169-3176 (2007).
  16. R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. B. Wang, K. A. Murphy, D. Sun, "Extrinsic Fabry–Perot sensor for structural evaluations," Applications of Fiber Optic Sensors in Engineering Mechanics F. Ansari, (ASCE, 1993).
  17. J. S. Sirkis, D. D. Brennan, M. A. Putman, T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, "In-line fiber etalon for strain measurement," Opt. Lett. 18, 1973-1975 (1993).
  18. J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, M. A. Putnam, "In-line fiber etalon (ILFE) fiber-optic strain sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1256-1263 (1995).
  19. Y. J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, "Review article: Recent progress in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981-999 (1996).
  20. H. F. Taylor, Fiber Optic Sensors (Marcel Dekker, 2002).
  21. Y. J. Rao, "Review article: Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 227-237 (2006).
  22. J. L. Santos, A. P. Leite, D. A. Jackson, "Optical fiber sensing with a low-finesse Fabry–Perot cavity," Appl. Opt. 31, 7361-7366 (1992).
  23. K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, "Quadrature phase-shifted, extrinsic Fabry–Perot optical fiber sensors," Opt. Lett. 16, 273-275 (1991).
  24. R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, "Extrinsic Fabry–Perot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurements from ${-}200$ to 900 degrees," Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 237-242 (1992).
  25. M. Schmidt, N. Furstenau, "Fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer sensors with three-wavelength digital phase demodulation," Opt. Lett. 24, 599-601 (1999).
  26. M. Schmidt, B. Werther, N. Fürstenau, "Fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer strain sensor with ${<} 50$ pm displacement resolution using three-wavelength digital phase demodulation," Opt. Exp. 8, 475-480 (2001).
  27. X. P. Chen, F. B. Shen, Z. Wang, Z. Y. Huang, A. B. Wang, "Micro-air-gap based intrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric fiber-optic sensor," App. Opt. 45, 7760-7766 (2006).
  28. E. Cibula, D. Donlagic, "In-line short cavity Fabry–Perot strain sensor for quasi-distributed measurement utilizing standard OTDR," Opt. Exp. 15, 8719-8730 (2007).
  29. V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, "Wavelength-tracked white light interferometry for highly sensitive strain and temperature measurement," Electron. Lett. 32, 247-249 (1996).
  30. H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, "Simultaneously measuring temperature and strain using optical fiber microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 647-653 (1997).
  31. J. L. Elster, M. E. Jones, M. K. Evans, S. M. Lenahan, C. A. Boyce, W. H. Velander, T. R. Van Tassel, "Optical fiber extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric (EFPI)-based biosensors," Proc. SPIE Biomed. Diagnostic, Guidance Surgical-Assist Systems II (2000) pp. 105-112.
  32. T. Wei, Y. Han, Y. Li, H.-L. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Temperature-insensitive miniaturized fiber inline Fabry–Perot interferometer for highly sensitive refractive index measurement," Opt. Exp. 16, 5764-5769 (2008).
  33. Z. L. Ran, Y. J. Rao, "Miniature in-line photonic-crystal-fiber etalon fabricated by 157 nm laser micromachining," Opt. Lett. 32, 3071-3073 (2007).
  34. C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, Fiber Optic Smart Structures (Wiley, 1995) pp. 249-269.

2008 (1)

T. Wei, Y. Han, Y. Li, H.-L. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Temperature-insensitive miniaturized fiber inline Fabry–Perot interferometer for highly sensitive refractive index measurement," Opt. Exp. 16, 5764-5769 (2008).

2007 (4)

Z. L. Ran, Y. J. Rao, "Miniature in-line photonic-crystal-fiber etalon fabricated by 157 nm laser micromachining," Opt. Lett. 32, 3071-3073 (2007).

E. Cibula, D. Donlagic, "In-line short cavity Fabry–Perot strain sensor for quasi-distributed measurement utilizing standard OTDR," Opt. Exp. 15, 8719-8730 (2007).

J. Yang, L. Yang, C.-Q. Xu, Y. Li, "Optimization of cladding-structure-modified long-period-grating refractive-index sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 372-380 (2007).

N. Skivesen, A. Tetu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, "Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor," Opt. Exp. 15, 3169-3176 (2007).

2006 (6)

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, "Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006).

D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro, "High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple-peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. 115, 227-231 (2006).

J. Yang, L. Yang, C.-Q. Xu, C. Xu, W. Huang, Y. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, 6142-6147 (2006).

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, "Low-cost optical fiber refractive-index sensor based on core diameter mismatch," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1409-1413 (2006).

Y. J. Rao, "Review article: Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 227-237 (2006).

X. P. Chen, F. B. Shen, Z. Wang, Z. Y. Huang, A. B. Wang, "Micro-air-gap based intrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric fiber-optic sensor," App. Opt. 45, 7760-7766 (2006).

2005 (2)

2002 (3)

X. W. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

O. Esteban, R. Alonso, M. C. Navarrete, A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Surface plasmon excitation in fiber-optics sensors: A novel theoretical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 448-453 (2002).

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, L. Zeni, "Design and analysis of an integrated antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide refractive-index sensor," Appl. Opt. 41, 70-73 (2002).

2001 (1)

M. Schmidt, B. Werther, N. Fürstenau, "Fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer strain sensor with ${<} 50$ pm displacement resolution using three-wavelength digital phase demodulation," Opt. Exp. 8, 475-480 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, "Simultaneously measuring temperature and strain using optical fiber microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 647-653 (1997).

1996 (2)

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, "Wavelength-tracked white light interferometry for highly sensitive strain and temperature measurement," Electron. Lett. 32, 247-249 (1996).

Y. J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, "Review article: Recent progress in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981-999 (1996).

1995 (2)

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, M. A. Putnam, "In-line fiber etalon (ILFE) fiber-optic strain sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1256-1263 (1995).

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, L. Y. Shao, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, M. A. Putnam, "In-line fiber etalon (ILFE) fiber-optic strain sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1256-1263 (1995).

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

J. L. Santos, A. P. Leite, D. A. Jackson, "Optical fiber sensing with a low-finesse Fabry–Perot cavity," Appl. Opt. 31, 7361-7366 (1992).

R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, "Extrinsic Fabry–Perot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurements from ${-}200$ to 900 degrees," Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 237-242 (1992).

1991 (2)

1988 (1)

B. Rothenhausler, W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

App. Opt. (1)

X. P. Chen, F. B. Shen, Z. Wang, Z. Y. Huang, A. B. Wang, "Micro-air-gap based intrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric fiber-optic sensor," App. Opt. 45, 7760-7766 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fiber grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, "Wavelength-tracked white light interferometry for highly sensitive strain and temperature measurement," Electron. Lett. 32, 247-249 (1996).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, L. Y. Shao, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, M. A. Putnam, "In-line fiber etalon (ILFE) fiber-optic strain sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1256-1263 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, R. T. Jones, H. Singh, A. D. Kersey, E. J. Friebele, M. A. Putnam, "In-line fiber etalon (ILFE) fiber-optic strain sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1256-1263 (1995).

X. W. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

O. Esteban, R. Alonso, M. C. Navarrete, A. Gonzalez-Cano, "Surface plasmon excitation in fiber-optics sensors: A novel theoretical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 448-453 (2002).

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, "Low-cost optical fiber refractive-index sensor based on core diameter mismatch," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1409-1413 (2006).

J. Yang, L. Yang, C.-Q. Xu, Y. Li, "Optimization of cladding-structure-modified long-period-grating refractive-index sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 372-380 (2007).

H. Singh, J. S. Sirkis, "Simultaneously measuring temperature and strain using optical fiber microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 647-653 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, "Review article: Recent progress in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 981-999 (1996).

Nature (1)

B. Rothenhausler, W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

Opt. Exp. (4)

N. Skivesen, A. Tetu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, "Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor," Opt. Exp. 15, 3169-3176 (2007).

E. Cibula, D. Donlagic, "In-line short cavity Fabry–Perot strain sensor for quasi-distributed measurement utilizing standard OTDR," Opt. Exp. 15, 8719-8730 (2007).

T. Wei, Y. Han, Y. Li, H.-L. Tsai, H. Xiao, "Temperature-insensitive miniaturized fiber inline Fabry–Perot interferometer for highly sensitive refractive index measurement," Opt. Exp. 16, 5764-5769 (2008).

M. Schmidt, B. Werther, N. Fürstenau, "Fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer strain sensor with ${<} 50$ pm displacement resolution using three-wavelength digital phase demodulation," Opt. Exp. 8, 475-480 (2001).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Y. J. Rao, "Review article: Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 227-237 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. (1)

D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro, "High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple-peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuat. B: Chem. 115, 227-231 (2006).

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, "Extrinsic Fabry–Perot sensor for strain and crack opening displacement measurements from ${-}200$ to 900 degrees," Smart Mater. Struct. 1, 237-242 (1992).

Other (4)

J. L. Elster, M. E. Jones, M. K. Evans, S. M. Lenahan, C. A. Boyce, W. H. Velander, T. R. Van Tassel, "Optical fiber extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric (EFPI)-based biosensors," Proc. SPIE Biomed. Diagnostic, Guidance Surgical-Assist Systems II (2000) pp. 105-112.

C. E. Lee, H. F. Taylor, Fiber Optic Smart Structures (Wiley, 1995) pp. 249-269.

H. F. Taylor, Fiber Optic Sensors (Marcel Dekker, 2002).

R. O. Claus, M. F. Gunther, A. B. Wang, K. A. Murphy, D. Sun, "Extrinsic Fabry–Perot sensor for structural evaluations," Applications of Fiber Optic Sensors in Engineering Mechanics F. Ansari, (ASCE, 1993).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.