Abstract

The six-port reflectometer technique enables simple and accurate measurement of optical reflection coefficients in both magnitude and phase. The reflection coefficient is computed from four power measurements of linear combinations of the waves incident and reflected from the device under test. While the six-port technique is very successful at microwave frequencies and conceptually related to coherent optical phase diversity receivers, no optical implementations have been reported so far. In this paper, we present an experimental characterization of an optical six-port reflectometer composed of three multimode interference couplers, fabricated with a single etch step in silicon on insulator. Measurements are performed using a novel technique with a simple setup. The six-port combines the incident and reflected waves with magnitude and phase errors less than ${\pm}0.5$ dB and ${\pm}6^\circ$ in the 1485–1575nm band.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. C. A. Hoer, K. C. Roe, "Using an arbitrary six-port junction to measure complex voltage ratios," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 23, 978-984 (1975).
  2. G. Engen, "The six-port reflectometer: An alternative network analyzer," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 25, 1075-1080 (1977).
  3. J. Li, R. Bosisio, K. Wu, "Computer and measurement simulation of a new digital receiver operating directly at millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2766-2772 (1995).
  4. T. Hentschel, "The six-port as a communications receiver," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 1039-1047 (2005).
  5. A. Davis, M. Pettitt, J. King, S. Wright, "Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 5, 561-572 (1987).
  6. E. Ip, A. Lau, D. Barros, J. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).
  7. I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, R. Bosisio, K. Wu, "Planar lightwave circuit six port technique for optical measurement and characterization," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2148-2157 (2005).
  8. I. Molina-Fernández, P. Pérez-Lara, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, "Simplified calibration strategy for an optical six port reflectometer," Opt. Exp. 13, 8243-8255 (2005).
  9. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, V. Herath, M. Porrmann, R. Noé, "Coherent optical communication: Towards realtime systems at 40 Gbit/s and beyond," Opt. Exp. 16, 866-872 (2008).
  10. D. Sandel, R. Noe, G. Heise, B. Borchert, "Optical network analysis and longitudinal structure characterization of fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2435-2442 (1998).
  11. D. Gifford, B. Soller, M. Wolfe, M. Froggatt, "Optical vector network analyzer for single-scan measurements of loss, group delay, and polarization mode dispersion," Appl. Opt. 44, 7282-7286 (2005).
  12. M. Bachmann, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "General self-imaging properties in $N \times N$ multimode interference couplers including phase relations," Appl. Opt. 33, 3905-3911 (1994).
  13. R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, "Fabrication tolerance analysis of bent single-mode rib waveguides on SOI," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 921-932 (2007).
  14. R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, "A design procedure for high performance, rib waveguide based multimode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2928-2936 (2008).
  15. R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, "Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .
  16. B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).
  17. R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. de Oliva-Rubio, P. Cheben, "Characterization of integrated photonic devices with minimum phase technique," Opt. Exp. 17, 8349-8361 (2009).

2009 (1)

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. de Oliva-Rubio, P. Cheben, "Characterization of integrated photonic devices with minimum phase technique," Opt. Exp. 17, 8349-8361 (2009).

2008 (3)

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, "A design procedure for high performance, rib waveguide based multimode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2928-2936 (2008).

E. Ip, A. Lau, D. Barros, J. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, V. Herath, M. Porrmann, R. Noé, "Coherent optical communication: Towards realtime systems at 40 Gbit/s and beyond," Opt. Exp. 16, 866-872 (2008).

2007 (1)

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, "Fabrication tolerance analysis of bent single-mode rib waveguides on SOI," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 921-932 (2007).

2005 (5)

D. Gifford, B. Soller, M. Wolfe, M. Froggatt, "Optical vector network analyzer for single-scan measurements of loss, group delay, and polarization mode dispersion," Appl. Opt. 44, 7282-7286 (2005).

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).

I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, R. Bosisio, K. Wu, "Planar lightwave circuit six port technique for optical measurement and characterization," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2148-2157 (2005).

I. Molina-Fernández, P. Pérez-Lara, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, "Simplified calibration strategy for an optical six port reflectometer," Opt. Exp. 13, 8243-8255 (2005).

T. Hentschel, "The six-port as a communications receiver," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 1039-1047 (2005).

1998 (1)

D. Sandel, R. Noe, G. Heise, B. Borchert, "Optical network analysis and longitudinal structure characterization of fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2435-2442 (1998).

1995 (1)

J. Li, R. Bosisio, K. Wu, "Computer and measurement simulation of a new digital receiver operating directly at millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2766-2772 (1995).

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

A. Davis, M. Pettitt, J. King, S. Wright, "Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 5, 561-572 (1987).

1977 (1)

G. Engen, "The six-port reflectometer: An alternative network analyzer," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 25, 1075-1080 (1977).

1975 (1)

C. A. Hoer, K. C. Roe, "Using an arbitrary six-port junction to measure complex voltage ratios," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 23, 978-984 (1975).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Janz, "Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (4)

C. A. Hoer, K. C. Roe, "Using an arbitrary six-port junction to measure complex voltage ratios," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 23, 978-984 (1975).

G. Engen, "The six-port reflectometer: An alternative network analyzer," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 25, 1075-1080 (1977).

J. Li, R. Bosisio, K. Wu, "Computer and measurement simulation of a new digital receiver operating directly at millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2766-2772 (1995).

T. Hentschel, "The six-port as a communications receiver," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 1039-1047 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

A. Davis, M. Pettitt, J. King, S. Wright, "Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 5, 561-572 (1987).

I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, R. Bosisio, K. Wu, "Planar lightwave circuit six port technique for optical measurement and characterization," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2148-2157 (2005).

D. Sandel, R. Noe, G. Heise, B. Borchert, "Optical network analysis and longitudinal structure characterization of fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2435-2442 (1998).

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, "A design procedure for high performance, rib waveguide based multimode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2928-2936 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (5)

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. de Oliva-Rubio, P. Cheben, "Characterization of integrated photonic devices with minimum phase technique," Opt. Exp. 17, 8349-8361 (2009).

I. Molina-Fernández, P. Pérez-Lara, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, "Simplified calibration strategy for an optical six port reflectometer," Opt. Exp. 13, 8243-8255 (2005).

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, V. Herath, M. Porrmann, R. Noé, "Coherent optical communication: Towards realtime systems at 40 Gbit/s and beyond," Opt. Exp. 16, 866-872 (2008).

E. Ip, A. Lau, D. Barros, J. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, "Fabrication tolerance analysis of bent single-mode rib waveguides on SOI," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 921-932 (2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.