Abstract

We propose a novel polarization dependent frequency shift (PDf) reduction method for fabricating a silica-based PLC DQPSK demodulator incorporating an asymmetrically positioned half-wave plate, and demonstrate error-free 43-Gbit/s demodulation for any incident SOP. The PDf has a detrimental effect on the demodulation performance of a DQPSK signal, and it is degraded by various kinds of PLC fabrication errors. In this paper, we focus on the polarization crosstalk in the coupler, which is one of the main causes of PDf. To eliminate such PDf, we controlled both the position of the half-wave plate in the MZI and the polarization of the propagated light. We describe the principle of this PDf reduction method in detail and provide a theoretical and experimental discussion. In addition, we describe a compact DQPSK demodulator composed of a single MZI based DQPSK demodulator with a 90-degree optical hybrid. This demodulator configuration can reduce the receiver's footprint. Finally we achieved a compact DQPSK demodulator with a low PDf of less than 0.10 GHz in the L-band.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. T. Kataoka, S. Matsuoka, T. Matsuda, H. Maeda, N. Sakaida, T. Kubo, T. Kotanigawa, T. Kawasaki, "Field transmission by using a commercially-ready 43 Gbit/s DWDM system employing RZ-DQPSK transponders in high PMD installed fiber," Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (2007).
  2. T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, S. Usui, T. Kubo, T. Kotanigawa, S. Matsuoka, "43 Gb/s pre-chirped RZ DQPSK WDM signal transmission over 500-km and 12 OADM nodes," Proc. ECOC (2006) pp. 1-2.
  3. J. Y. C. Hsieh, C. Ai, V. Chien, X. Liu, A. H. Gnauck, X. Wei, "Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s DPSK signals," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 827.
  4. Y. K. Lizý, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villeneuve, A. Wetter, F. Seguin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, $S$-, $C$-, and $L$-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1886 (2007).
  5. H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Oguma, "Analysing the penalty induced by PD of MZI in DQPSKk receiver using novel measuring technique," Electron. Lett. 43, 122 (2007).
  6. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1887 (2003).
  7. H. Takahashi, "Planar lightwave circuit devices for optical communication: Present and future," Proc. SPIE 5246 520-531 (2002).
  8. M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, T. Shibata, K. Kohtoku, Y. Hibino, "Compact and low-loss interleave filter employing lattice-form structure and silica-based waveguide," J. Lightw. Tech. 22, 895-902 (2004).
  9. A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Silica-based waveguide-type wavelength-insensitive couplers (WINC's) with series-tapered coupling structure," J. Lightw. Tech. 10, 1814 (1992).
  10. I. P. Kaminow, "Polarization in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-17, 15-22 (1981).
  11. K. Takada, S. Mitachi, "Polarization crosstalk dependence on length in silica-based waveguides measured by using optical low coherence interference," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1413-1422 (1998).
  12. Y. Nasu, Y. Hashizume, Y. Sakamaki, T. Hashimoto, K. Hattori, Y. Inoue, "Operation range enhancement of PLC Mach-Zehnder interferometer with wide-band PDf reduction," J. Lightw. Technol. .
  13. C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, S. S. Patel, S. Chandrasekhar, A. E. White, "Polarization-insensitive planar lightwave circuit dual-rate Mach-Zehnder delay-interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1708 (2006).
  14. M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625 (1994).
  15. Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118 (2005).
  16. Y. Sakamaki, Y. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, K. Hattori, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, "Operation range enhancement of silica waveguide 43 Gbit/s DQPSK demodulator by using stress release grooves," Proc. LEOS (2008) pp. 449.
  17. Y. Nasu, M. Oguma, H. Takahashi, Y. Inoue, H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, "Polarization insensitive MZI-based DQPSK demodulator with asymmetric half-wave plate configuration," Proc. OFC (2008) pp. 1-3.
  18. M. Oguma, Y. Nasu, H. Takahashi, H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, "Single MZI-based 1$\,\times\,$4 DQPSK demodulator," Proc. ECOC (2007) pp. 147.
  19. G. Heise, R. Narevich, "Simple model for polarization sensitivity of silica waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Lett. 17, 2116 (2005).

2007 (2)

Y. K. Lizý, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villeneuve, A. Wetter, F. Seguin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, $S$-, $C$-, and $L$-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1886 (2007).

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Oguma, "Analysing the penalty induced by PD of MZI in DQPSKk receiver using novel measuring technique," Electron. Lett. 43, 122 (2007).

2006 (1)

C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, S. S. Patel, S. Chandrasekhar, A. E. White, "Polarization-insensitive planar lightwave circuit dual-rate Mach-Zehnder delay-interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1708 (2006).

2005 (2)

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118 (2005).

G. Heise, R. Narevich, "Simple model for polarization sensitivity of silica waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Lett. 17, 2116 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, T. Shibata, K. Kohtoku, Y. Hibino, "Compact and low-loss interleave filter employing lattice-form structure and silica-based waveguide," J. Lightw. Tech. 22, 895-902 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1887 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. Takahashi, "Planar lightwave circuit devices for optical communication: Present and future," Proc. SPIE 5246 520-531 (2002).

1998 (1)

K. Takada, S. Mitachi, "Polarization crosstalk dependence on length in silica-based waveguides measured by using optical low coherence interference," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1413-1422 (1998).

1994 (1)

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625 (1994).

1992 (1)

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Silica-based waveguide-type wavelength-insensitive couplers (WINC's) with series-tapered coupling structure," J. Lightw. Tech. 10, 1814 (1992).

1981 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, "Polarization in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-17, 15-22 (1981).

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Oguma, "Analysing the penalty induced by PD of MZI in DQPSKk receiver using novel measuring technique," Electron. Lett. 43, 122 (2007).

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118 (2005).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

I. P. Kaminow, "Polarization in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-17, 15-22 (1981).

IEEE Photon. Lett. (1)

G. Heise, R. Narevich, "Simple model for polarization sensitivity of silica waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Lett. 17, 2116 (2005).

J. Lightw. Tech. (2)

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, T. Shibata, K. Kohtoku, Y. Hibino, "Compact and low-loss interleave filter employing lattice-form structure and silica-based waveguide," J. Lightw. Tech. 22, 895-902 (2004).

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Silica-based waveguide-type wavelength-insensitive couplers (WINC's) with series-tapered coupling structure," J. Lightw. Tech. 10, 1814 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625 (1994).

K. Takada, S. Mitachi, "Polarization crosstalk dependence on length in silica-based waveguides measured by using optical low coherence interference," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1413-1422 (1998).

Y. Nasu, Y. Hashizume, Y. Sakamaki, T. Hashimoto, K. Hattori, Y. Inoue, "Operation range enhancement of PLC Mach-Zehnder interferometer with wide-band PDf reduction," J. Lightw. Technol. .

H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1887 (2003).

Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

Y. K. Lizý, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villeneuve, A. Wetter, F. Seguin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, $S$-, $C$-, and $L$-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1886 (2007).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, S. S. Patel, S. Chandrasekhar, A. E. White, "Polarization-insensitive planar lightwave circuit dual-rate Mach-Zehnder delay-interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1708 (2006).

Proc. SPIE 5246 (1)

H. Takahashi, "Planar lightwave circuit devices for optical communication: Present and future," Proc. SPIE 5246 520-531 (2002).

Other (6)

T. Kataoka, S. Matsuoka, T. Matsuda, H. Maeda, N. Sakaida, T. Kubo, T. Kotanigawa, T. Kawasaki, "Field transmission by using a commercially-ready 43 Gbit/s DWDM system employing RZ-DQPSK transponders in high PMD installed fiber," Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (2007).

T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, S. Usui, T. Kubo, T. Kotanigawa, S. Matsuoka, "43 Gb/s pre-chirped RZ DQPSK WDM signal transmission over 500-km and 12 OADM nodes," Proc. ECOC (2006) pp. 1-2.

J. Y. C. Hsieh, C. Ai, V. Chien, X. Liu, A. H. Gnauck, X. Wei, "Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s DPSK signals," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 827.

Y. Sakamaki, Y. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, K. Hattori, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, "Operation range enhancement of silica waveguide 43 Gbit/s DQPSK demodulator by using stress release grooves," Proc. LEOS (2008) pp. 449.

Y. Nasu, M. Oguma, H. Takahashi, Y. Inoue, H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, "Polarization insensitive MZI-based DQPSK demodulator with asymmetric half-wave plate configuration," Proc. OFC (2008) pp. 1-3.

M. Oguma, Y. Nasu, H. Takahashi, H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, "Single MZI-based 1$\,\times\,$4 DQPSK demodulator," Proc. ECOC (2007) pp. 147.

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