Abstract

Planar microdisk optical resonators fabricated from Ge$_{23}$Sb$_{7}$S$_{70}$ chalcogenide glass on a silicon substrate are applied for cavity-enhanced spectroscopic measurement of chemical molecular absorption fingerprint. A 0.02 cm$^{- 1}$ detection limit for these devices is demonstrated. This detection limit represents a threefold improvement as compared to a straight waveguide sensor, while the physical device length is reduced by 40-fold. The reduction in device footprint with enhanced sensitivity makes the structure attractive for “sensor-on-a-chip” device applications. We also present a design optimization approach for cavity-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy using traveling-wave resonators, which indicates that further performance improvement can be achieved in optimally coupled, low-loss resonant cavities.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. P. A. Martin, "Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring," Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201-210 (2002).
  2. S. Hocdé, O. Loréal, O. Sire, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, B. Turlin, J. Keirsse, P. Leroyer, J. Lucas, "Metabolic imaging of tissues by infrared fiber-optic spectroscopy: An efficient tool for medical diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 404-407 (2004).
  3. R. Schneider, K. Kovar, "Analysis of ecstasy tablets: Comparison of reflectance and transmittance near infrared spectroscopy," Forensic Sci. Int. 134, 187-195 (2003).
  4. G. Reich, "Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging: Basic principles and pharmaceutical applications," Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 57, 1109-1143 (2005).
  5. T. McGarvey, A. Conjusteau, H. Mabuchi, "Finesse and sensitivity gain in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of biomolecules in solution," Opt. Exp. 14, 10441-10451 (2006).
  6. J. Nadeau, V. Ilchenko, D. Kossokovski, G. Bearman, L. Maleki, "High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids," Proc. SPIE 4629, 172-180 (2002).
  7. G. Farca, S. Shopova, A. Rosenberger, "Cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy using microresonator whispering-gallery modes," Opt. Exp. 15, 17443-17448 (2007).
  8. A. Nitkowski, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Cavity-enhanced on-chip absorption spectroscopy using microring resonators," Opt. Exp. 16, 11930-11936 (2008).
  9. R. P. Scott, Tandem Techniques (Wiley, 1997).
  10. G. J. Hawkins, Spectral characterisation of infrared optical materials and filters Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Cybern., Univ. ReadingReadingU.K. (1998).
  11. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, P. Lucas, "Development of far-infrared-transmitting Te based glasses suitable for carbon dioxide detection and space optics," Adv. Mater. 19, 3796-3800 (2007).
  12. J. Savage, "Optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 101-115 (1982).
  13. A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, C. Pantano, "Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: MidIR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2757-2762 (2008).
  14. N. Hô, M. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. Riley, T. Myers, N. Anheier, "Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the midinfrared," Opt. Lett. 31, 1860-1862 (2006).
  15. J. Hu, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, "Optical loss reduction in HIC chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow," to be published.
  16. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
  17. A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
  18. J. Robinson, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities," Opt. Exp. 16, 4296-4301 (2008).
  19. J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, "Design guidelines for optical resonator biochemical sensors," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1032-1041 (2009).
  20. R. Boyd, J. Heebner, "Sensitive disk resonator photonic biosensor," Appl. Opt. 40, 5742-5747 (2001).
  21. L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, K. C. Richardson, "Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge--Sb--S," Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64-70 (2006).
  22. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, "Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor," Opt. Exp. 15, 2307-2314 (2007).
  23. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, "Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 11798-11807 (2007).
  24. J. Hu, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, "Planar waveguide-coupled, high-index-contrast, high-Q resonators in chalcogenide glass for sensing," Opt. Lett. 33, 2500-2502 (2008).

2009 (1)

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, "Design guidelines for optical resonator biochemical sensors," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1032-1041 (2009).

2008 (4)

J. Robinson, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities," Opt. Exp. 16, 4296-4301 (2008).

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, C. Pantano, "Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: MidIR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2757-2762 (2008).

A. Nitkowski, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Cavity-enhanced on-chip absorption spectroscopy using microring resonators," Opt. Exp. 16, 11930-11936 (2008).

J. Hu, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, "Planar waveguide-coupled, high-index-contrast, high-Q resonators in chalcogenide glass for sensing," Opt. Lett. 33, 2500-2502 (2008).

2007 (4)

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, "Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor," Opt. Exp. 15, 2307-2314 (2007).

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, "Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 11798-11807 (2007).

A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, P. Lucas, "Development of far-infrared-transmitting Te based glasses suitable for carbon dioxide detection and space optics," Adv. Mater. 19, 3796-3800 (2007).

G. Farca, S. Shopova, A. Rosenberger, "Cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy using microresonator whispering-gallery modes," Opt. Exp. 15, 17443-17448 (2007).

2006 (3)

N. Hô, M. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. Riley, T. Myers, N. Anheier, "Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the midinfrared," Opt. Lett. 31, 1860-1862 (2006).

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, K. C. Richardson, "Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge--Sb--S," Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64-70 (2006).

T. McGarvey, A. Conjusteau, H. Mabuchi, "Finesse and sensitivity gain in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of biomolecules in solution," Opt. Exp. 14, 10441-10451 (2006).

2005 (1)

G. Reich, "Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging: Basic principles and pharmaceutical applications," Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 57, 1109-1143 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. Hocdé, O. Loréal, O. Sire, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, B. Turlin, J. Keirsse, P. Leroyer, J. Lucas, "Metabolic imaging of tissues by infrared fiber-optic spectroscopy: An efficient tool for medical diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 404-407 (2004).

2003 (1)

R. Schneider, K. Kovar, "Analysis of ecstasy tablets: Comparison of reflectance and transmittance near infrared spectroscopy," Forensic Sci. Int. 134, 187-195 (2003).

2002 (2)

P. A. Martin, "Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring," Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201-210 (2002).

J. Nadeau, V. Ilchenko, D. Kossokovski, G. Bearman, L. Maleki, "High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids," Proc. SPIE 4629, 172-180 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).

1982 (1)

J. Savage, "Optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 101-115 (1982).

Adv. Drug Del. Rev. (1)

G. Reich, "Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging: Basic principles and pharmaceutical applications," Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 57, 1109-1143 (2005).

Adv. Mater. (1)

A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, P. Lucas, "Development of far-infrared-transmitting Te based glasses suitable for carbon dioxide detection and space optics," Adv. Mater. 19, 3796-3800 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

P. A. Martin, "Near-infrared diode laser spectroscopy in chemical process and environmental air monitoring," Chem. Soc. Rev. 31, 201-210 (2002).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).

Forensic Sci. Int. (1)

R. Schneider, K. Kovar, "Analysis of ecstasy tablets: Comparison of reflectance and transmittance near infrared spectroscopy," Forensic Sci. Int. 134, 187-195 (2003).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Hocdé, O. Loréal, O. Sire, C. Boussard-Plédel, B. Bureau, B. Turlin, J. Keirsse, P. Leroyer, J. Lucas, "Metabolic imaging of tissues by infrared fiber-optic spectroscopy: An efficient tool for medical diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 404-407 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

J. Savage, "Optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 101-115 (1982).

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, C. Pantano, "Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: MidIR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2757-2762 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, "Design guidelines for optical resonator biochemical sensors," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1032-1041 (2009).

Journal of Lightwave Technology (1)

J. Hu, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, "Optical loss reduction in HIC chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow," to be published.

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, K. C. Richardson, "Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge--Sb--S," Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64-70 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (6)

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, "Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor," Opt. Exp. 15, 2307-2314 (2007).

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, "Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 11798-11807 (2007).

J. Robinson, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "On-chip gas detection in silicon optical microcavities," Opt. Exp. 16, 4296-4301 (2008).

T. McGarvey, A. Conjusteau, H. Mabuchi, "Finesse and sensitivity gain in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of biomolecules in solution," Opt. Exp. 14, 10441-10451 (2006).

G. Farca, S. Shopova, A. Rosenberger, "Cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy using microresonator whispering-gallery modes," Opt. Exp. 15, 17443-17448 (2007).

A. Nitkowski, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Cavity-enhanced on-chip absorption spectroscopy using microring resonators," Opt. Exp. 16, 11930-11936 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Nadeau, V. Ilchenko, D. Kossokovski, G. Bearman, L. Maleki, "High-Q whispering-gallery mode sensor in liquids," Proc. SPIE 4629, 172-180 (2002).

Other (2)

R. P. Scott, Tandem Techniques (Wiley, 1997).

G. J. Hawkins, Spectral characterisation of infrared optical materials and filters Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Cybern., Univ. ReadingReadingU.K. (1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.