Abstract

Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have become commercially available sensors for the measurement of temperature, strain, and many other quantities. One interesting application is the embedding of these sensors, during which shear strains can arise inside the sensor. As we have recently demonstrated by a full-tensor coupled-mode analysis, shear strains do influence the spectral response of fiber Bragg sensors, and thus have to be considered. In this paper, we use the theory behind this analysis to compute the direct influence of shear strains on the output of a FBG measurement system, and show cases where shear strain effects are relevant. Furthermore, we compare the sensitivity of different interrogation algorithms toward shear strain influences on the measurement system output. To model the experimentally relevant unpolarized light sources, we derive a model using the monochromatic waves of coupled-mode theory. We apply the unpolarized light to the FBG shear strain problem and show that for unpolarized light, shear strain has to be taken into account as well. We find absolute measurement errors in the range of 100 pm. For typical normal strain measurements, this would be of an order of 10% of relative error.

© 2009 IEEE

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2009 (2)

M. S. Müller, L. Hoffmann, A. Sandmair, A. W. Koch, "Full strain tensor treatment of fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 547-553 (2009).

M. S. Müller, H. El-Khozondar, A. Bernardini, A. W. Koch, "Transfer matrix approach to four mode coupling in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1142-1148 (2009).

2008 (1)

T. Mawatari, D. Nelson, "A multi-parameter Bragg grating fiber optic sensor and triaxial strain measurement," Smart Mater. Struct. 17, 035033-1-035033-19 (2008).

2007 (1)

J. Gil, "Polarimetric characterization of light and media," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1-47 (2007).

2006 (1)

M. Prabhugoud, K. Peters, "Finite element model for embedded fiber Bragg grating sensor," Smart Mater. Struct. 15, 550-562 (2006).

2004 (1)

E. Chehura, C. Ye, S. Staines, S. James, R. Tatam, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringent fibres to temperature and transverse load," Smart Mater. Struct. 13, 888-895 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, Y. Huang, X. Ren, "Experimental analysis of birefringence effects on fiber Bragg gratings induced by lateral compression," Opt. Commun. 229, 203-207 (2003).

2002 (1)

C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "A polarization-maintaining fibre Bragg grating interrogation system for multi axis strain sensing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1446-1449 (2002).

2000 (2)

M. McCall, "On the application of coupled mode theory for modeling fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 236-242 (2000).

R. Gafsi, M. El-Sherif, "Analysis of induced-birefringence effects on fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 299-323 (2000).

1999 (1)

C. Lawrence, D. Nelson, E. Udd, T. Bennett, "A fiber optic sensor for transverse strain measurement," Exp. Mech. 39, 202-209 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. Ezbiri, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Handerek, "High resolution instrumentation system for fibre-Bragg grating aerospace sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 43-48 (1998).

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).

1994 (1)

J. Calero, S.-P. Wu, C. Pope, S. Chuang, J. Murtha, "Theory and experiments on birefringent optical fibers embedded in concrete structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1081-1091 (1994).

1986 (2)

J. Noda, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1071-1089 (1986).

W. Jizhong, "A matrix method for describing unpolarized light and its applications," Acta Mech. Sin. 2, 362-372 (1986).

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

I. Kaminow, "Polarization in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15-22 (1981).

1979 (1)

Acta Mech. Sin. (1)

W. Jizhong, "A matrix method for describing unpolarized light and its applications," Acta Mech. Sin. 2, 362-372 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Gil, "Polarimetric characterization of light and media," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1-47 (2007).

Exp. Mech. (1)

C. Lawrence, D. Nelson, E. Udd, T. Bennett, "A fiber optic sensor for transverse strain measurement," Exp. Mech. 39, 202-209 (1999).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. S. Müller, L. Hoffmann, A. Sandmair, A. W. Koch, "Full strain tensor treatment of fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 547-553 (2009).

M. S. Müller, H. El-Khozondar, A. Bernardini, A. W. Koch, "Transfer matrix approach to four mode coupling in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1142-1148 (2009).

I. Kaminow, "Polarization in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15-22 (1981).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

J. Noda, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1071-1089 (1986).

J. Calero, S.-P. Wu, C. Pope, S. Chuang, J. Murtha, "Theory and experiments on birefringent optical fibers embedded in concrete structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1081-1091 (1994).

M. McCall, "On the application of coupled mode theory for modeling fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 236-242 (2000).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "A polarization-maintaining fibre Bragg grating interrogation system for multi axis strain sensing," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1446-1449 (2002).

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, Y. Huang, X. Ren, "Experimental analysis of birefringence effects on fiber Bragg gratings induced by lateral compression," Opt. Commun. 229, 203-207 (2003).

A. Ezbiri, S. Kanellopoulos, V. Handerek, "High resolution instrumentation system for fibre-Bragg grating aerospace sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 43-48 (1998).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

R. Gafsi, M. El-Sherif, "Analysis of induced-birefringence effects on fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 299-323 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Smart Mater. Struct. (3)

M. Prabhugoud, K. Peters, "Finite element model for embedded fiber Bragg grating sensor," Smart Mater. Struct. 15, 550-562 (2006).

E. Chehura, C. Ye, S. Staines, S. James, R. Tatam, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringent fibres to temperature and transverse load," Smart Mater. Struct. 13, 888-895 (2004).

T. Mawatari, D. Nelson, "A multi-parameter Bragg grating fiber optic sensor and triaxial strain measurement," Smart Mater. Struct. 17, 035033-1-035033-19 (2008).

Other (6)

M. S. Müller, T. C. Buck, H. J. El-Khozondar, A. W. Koch, "Measurement errors from internal shear strain within fiber-Bragg-grating sensors," Proc. SPIE Eur.-Opt. Metrol. (2009) pp. 739007-1-739007-8.

H. W. Lee, M. Song, "FBG interrogation with a scanning Fabry–Perot filter and Gaussian line-fitting algorithm," Proc. 18th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (2005) pp. 963-964.

E. Udd, "Review of multi-parameter fiber grating sensors," Proc. Fiber Opt. Sens. Appl. V, Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 677002.1-677002.10.

T. Narasimhamutry, Photoelastic and Electro-Optic Properties of Crystals (Plenum, 1981).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005).

S. Timoshenko, J. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1951).

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