Abstract

TCP-based applications account for a majority of data traffic in the Internet; thus, understanding and improving the performance of TCP over optical burst switching (OBS) network is critical. In this paper, we identify the ill effects of implementing TCP over a hybrid network (IP-access and OBS-core). We propose a Split-TCP framework for the hybrid IP-OBS network to improve TCP performance. We propose two Split-TCP approaches, namely, 1:1:1 and $N:1:N$. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches over an IP-OBS hybrid network. Based on the simulation results, $N:1:N$ Split-TCP approach outperforms all other approaches. We also develop an analytical model for end-to-end Split-TCP throughput and verify it with simulations.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. J. P. Jue, V. M. Vokkarane, Optical Burst Switched Networks (Springer-Verlag, 2005).
  2. C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).
  3. I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, "CORD: Contention resolution by delay lines," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1014-1029 (1996).
  4. B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength conversion in WDM networking," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061-1073 (1998).
  5. S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, S. Dixit, "A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).
  6. V. M. Vokkarane, J. P. Jue, "Burst segmentation: An approach for reducing packet loss in optical burst switched networks," SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. 4, 81-89 (2003).
  7. X. Huang, V. M. Vokkarane, J. P. Jue, "Burst cloning: A proactive scheme to reduce data loss in optical burst-switched networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC) (2005) pp. 1673-1677.
  8. Q. Zhang, V. M. Vokkarane, Y. Wang, J. P. Jue, "Analysis of TCP over optical burst-switched networks with burst retransmission," Proc. IEEE Globecom 2005 Photon. Technol. Commun. Symp. () pp. 6.
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  10. I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Karger, M. F. Kaashoek, H. Balakrishnan, "Chord: A scalable peer-to-peer lookup protocol for Internet applications," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM (2001) pp. 149-160.
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  12. V. Jacobson, "Congestion avoidance and control," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM (1988) pp. 314-329.
  13. W. Stevens, TCP slow start, congestion avoidance, fast retransmit, and fast recovery algorithms RFC 2001 (1997).
  14. S. Floyd, T. Henderson, The NewReno modification to TCP's fast recovery algorithm RFC 2582 (1999).
  15. M. Mathis, J. Mahdavi, S. Floyd, A. Romanow, TCP selective acknowledgement options RFC 2018 (1996).
  16. W. Feng, P. Tinnakornsrisuphap, "The failure of TCP in high-performance computational grids," Proc. Supercomput. Conf. (2000) pp. 37.
  17. S. Floyd, Highspeed TCP for large congestion windows RFC 3649 (2003).
  18. X. Yu, C. Qiao, Y. Liu, "TCP implementations and false time out detection in OBS networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2004) pp. 774-784.
  19. A. Detti, M. Listanti, "Impact of segments aggregation on TCP Reno flows in optical burst switching networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2002) pp. 1803-1812.
  20. X. Yu, C. Qiao, Y. Liu, D. Towsley, Performance evaluation of TCP implementations in OBS networks The State Univ. New York at Buffalo Tech. Rep. 2003-13 (2003).
  21. S. Gowda, R. Shenai, K. Sivalingam, H. C. Cankaya, "Performance evaluation of TCP over optical burst-switched (OBS) WDM networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC) (2003) pp. 1433-1437.
  22. H. Balakrishnan, S. Seshan, E. Amir, R. H. Katz , "Improving TCP/IP performance over wireless networks," Proc. 1st ACM Conf. Mobile Comput. Netw. (1995) pp. 2-11.
  23. C. Barakat, A. A. Fawal, "Analysis of link-level hybrid FEC/ARQ-SR for wireless links and long-lived TCP traffic," Perform. Eval. J. 57, 423-500 (2004).
  24. D. Barman, I. Matta, E. Altman, R. E. Azouzi, "TCP optimization through FEC, ARQ and transmission power tradeoffs," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Wired/Wireless Internet Commun. (WWIC) (2004) pp. 87-98.
  25. A. V. Bakre, B. R. Badrinath, "Implementation and performance evaluation of indirect TCP," IEEE Trans. Comput. 46, 260-278 (1997).
  26. R. Yavatkar, N. Bhagwat, "Improving endtoend performance of TCP over mobile internetworks," Proc. Workshop Mobile Comput. Syst. Appl. (1994) pp. 146-152.
  27. Z. Haas, P. Agrawal, "MobileTCP: An asymmetric transport protocol design for mobile systems," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC) (1997) pp. 1054-1058.
  28. K. Wang, S. K. Tripathi, "Mobile-end transport protocol: An alternative to TCP/IP over wireless links," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (1998) pp. 1046-1053.
  29. T. J. Hacker, B. D. Athey, B. Noble, "The end-to-end performance effects of parallel TCP sockets on a lossy wide-area network," Proc. Int. Parallel Distrib. Process. Symp. (IPDPS) (2002) pp. 434-443.
  30. H. Yun, R. Sivakumar, "pTCP: An end-to-end transport layer protocol for striped connections," Proc. 10th IEEE Int. Conf. Netw. Protocols (ICNP) (2002) pp. 24-33.
  31. S. Floyd, "TCP and explicit congestion notification," ACM Comput. Commun. Rev. 24, 10-24 (1994).
  32. F. Xie, N. Jiang, Y. H. Ho, K. A. Hua, "Semi-split TCP: Maintaining end-to-end semantics for split TCP," Proc. 32nd IEEE Conf. Local Comput. Netw. (2007) pp. 303-314.
  33. J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP Reno performance: A simple model and its empirical validation," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 133-145 (2000).
  34. Y. Xiong, M. Vanderhoute, H. C. Cankaya, "Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1838-1854 (2000).
  35. J. Y. Wei, R. I. McFarland Jr., "Just-in-time signaling for WDM optical burst switching networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2019-2037 (2000).
  36. Available: http://www.matissenetworks.com/ (2008).

2004

I. Foster, C. Kesselman, S. Tuecke, "The anatomy of the Grid: Enabling scalable virtual organizations," Int. J. High Perform. Comput. Appl. 15, 200-222 (2004).

C. Barakat, A. A. Fawal, "Analysis of link-level hybrid FEC/ARQ-SR for wireless links and long-lived TCP traffic," Perform. Eval. J. 57, 423-500 (2004).

2003

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, S. Dixit, "A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).

V. M. Vokkarane, J. P. Jue, "Burst segmentation: An approach for reducing packet loss in optical burst switched networks," SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. 4, 81-89 (2003).

2000

J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP Reno performance: A simple model and its empirical validation," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 133-145 (2000).

Y. Xiong, M. Vanderhoute, H. C. Cankaya, "Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1838-1854 (2000).

J. Y. Wei, R. I. McFarland Jr., "Just-in-time signaling for WDM optical burst switching networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2019-2037 (2000).

1999

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

1998

B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength conversion in WDM networking," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061-1073 (1998).

1997

A. V. Bakre, B. R. Badrinath, "Implementation and performance evaluation of indirect TCP," IEEE Trans. Comput. 46, 260-278 (1997).

1996

K. Fall, S. Floyd, "Simulation-based comparisons of Tahoe, Reno and SACK TCP," ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 26, 5-21 (1996).

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, "CORD: Contention resolution by delay lines," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1014-1029 (1996).

1994

S. Floyd, "TCP and explicit congestion notification," ACM Comput. Commun. Rev. 24, 10-24 (1994).

ACM Comput. Commun. Rev.

S. Floyd, "TCP and explicit congestion notification," ACM Comput. Commun. Rev. 24, 10-24 (1994).

ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.

K. Fall, S. Floyd, "Simulation-based comparisons of Tahoe, Reno and SACK TCP," ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 26, 5-21 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, "CORD: Contention resolution by delay lines," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1014-1029 (1996).

B. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength conversion in WDM networking," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061-1073 (1998).

Y. Xiong, M. Vanderhoute, H. C. Cankaya, "Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1838-1854 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Comput.

A. V. Bakre, B. R. Badrinath, "Implementation and performance evaluation of indirect TCP," IEEE Trans. Comput. 46, 260-278 (1997).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP Reno performance: A simple model and its empirical validation," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 8, 133-145 (2000).

Int. J. High Perform. Comput. Appl.

I. Foster, C. Kesselman, S. Tuecke, "The anatomy of the Grid: Enabling scalable virtual organizations," Int. J. High Perform. Comput. Appl. 15, 200-222 (2004).

J. High Speed Netw.

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, S. Dixit, "A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).

J. Y. Wei, R. I. McFarland Jr., "Just-in-time signaling for WDM optical burst switching networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2019-2037 (2000).

Perform. Eval. J.

C. Barakat, A. A. Fawal, "Analysis of link-level hybrid FEC/ARQ-SR for wireless links and long-lived TCP traffic," Perform. Eval. J. 57, 423-500 (2004).

SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag.

V. M. Vokkarane, J. P. Jue, "Burst segmentation: An approach for reducing packet loss in optical burst switched networks," SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag. 4, 81-89 (2003).

Other

X. Huang, V. M. Vokkarane, J. P. Jue, "Burst cloning: A proactive scheme to reduce data loss in optical burst-switched networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC) (2005) pp. 1673-1677.

Q. Zhang, V. M. Vokkarane, Y. Wang, J. P. Jue, "Analysis of TCP over optical burst-switched networks with burst retransmission," Proc. IEEE Globecom 2005 Photon. Technol. Commun. Symp. () pp. 6.

J. P. Jue, V. M. Vokkarane, Optical Burst Switched Networks (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Karger, M. F. Kaashoek, H. Balakrishnan, "Chord: A scalable peer-to-peer lookup protocol for Internet applications," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM (2001) pp. 149-160.

V. Jacobson, "Congestion avoidance and control," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM (1988) pp. 314-329.

W. Stevens, TCP slow start, congestion avoidance, fast retransmit, and fast recovery algorithms RFC 2001 (1997).

S. Floyd, T. Henderson, The NewReno modification to TCP's fast recovery algorithm RFC 2582 (1999).

M. Mathis, J. Mahdavi, S. Floyd, A. Romanow, TCP selective acknowledgement options RFC 2018 (1996).

W. Feng, P. Tinnakornsrisuphap, "The failure of TCP in high-performance computational grids," Proc. Supercomput. Conf. (2000) pp. 37.

S. Floyd, Highspeed TCP for large congestion windows RFC 3649 (2003).

X. Yu, C. Qiao, Y. Liu, "TCP implementations and false time out detection in OBS networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2004) pp. 774-784.

A. Detti, M. Listanti, "Impact of segments aggregation on TCP Reno flows in optical burst switching networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2002) pp. 1803-1812.

X. Yu, C. Qiao, Y. Liu, D. Towsley, Performance evaluation of TCP implementations in OBS networks The State Univ. New York at Buffalo Tech. Rep. 2003-13 (2003).

S. Gowda, R. Shenai, K. Sivalingam, H. C. Cankaya, "Performance evaluation of TCP over optical burst-switched (OBS) WDM networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC) (2003) pp. 1433-1437.

H. Balakrishnan, S. Seshan, E. Amir, R. H. Katz , "Improving TCP/IP performance over wireless networks," Proc. 1st ACM Conf. Mobile Comput. Netw. (1995) pp. 2-11.

D. Barman, I. Matta, E. Altman, R. E. Azouzi, "TCP optimization through FEC, ARQ and transmission power tradeoffs," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Wired/Wireless Internet Commun. (WWIC) (2004) pp. 87-98.

F. Xie, N. Jiang, Y. H. Ho, K. A. Hua, "Semi-split TCP: Maintaining end-to-end semantics for split TCP," Proc. 32nd IEEE Conf. Local Comput. Netw. (2007) pp. 303-314.

R. Yavatkar, N. Bhagwat, "Improving endtoend performance of TCP over mobile internetworks," Proc. Workshop Mobile Comput. Syst. Appl. (1994) pp. 146-152.

Z. Haas, P. Agrawal, "MobileTCP: An asymmetric transport protocol design for mobile systems," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC) (1997) pp. 1054-1058.

K. Wang, S. K. Tripathi, "Mobile-end transport protocol: An alternative to TCP/IP over wireless links," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (1998) pp. 1046-1053.

T. J. Hacker, B. D. Athey, B. Noble, "The end-to-end performance effects of parallel TCP sockets on a lossy wide-area network," Proc. Int. Parallel Distrib. Process. Symp. (IPDPS) (2002) pp. 434-443.

H. Yun, R. Sivakumar, "pTCP: An end-to-end transport layer protocol for striped connections," Proc. 10th IEEE Int. Conf. Netw. Protocols (ICNP) (2002) pp. 24-33.

Available: http://www.matissenetworks.com/ (2008).

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