Abstract

We propose an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG)-based tunable optical dispersion compensator (TODC) that uses a multiple lens structure with two lens materials. The lenses are realized by filling lens-shaped trenches in a slab waveguide with optical resins. The thermooptic effect provided by the lens materials realizes the desired dispersion tuning function. The multiple lens structure enables us to design the center dispersion and the dispersion tuning range independently. We fabricate a TODC based on a 10-ch, 10-GHz spacing AWG that uses resins with refractive indexes of 1.393 and 1.510. Its dispersion range is 0 to ${+}$125 ps/nm. We also perform a transmission experiment using a 12.5 Gbps RZ-OOK signal. The power penalty at the bit error rate of 10$^{- 9}$ is less than 3 dB; and error-free transmission is confirmed after dispersion compensation.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. L.-S. Yan, T. Luo, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, K.-M. Feng, R. Khosravani, A. E. Willner, "Investigation of performance variations due to the amplitude of group-delay ripple in chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 238-242 (2006).
  2. H. Ooi, K. Nakamura, Y. Akiyama, T. Takahara, T. Terahara, Y. Kawahata, H. Isono, G. Ishikawa, "40-Gb/s WDM transmission with virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) variable dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2196-2203 (2002).
  3. G.-H. Lee, S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, "Optical dispersion compensator with ${>}4000$-ps/nm tuning range using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) and spatial light modulator (SLM)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1819-1821 (2006).
  4. H. Tsuda, T. Ishii, K. Naganuma, H. Takenouchi, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, T. Kurokawa, "Second- and third-order dispersion compensator using a high-resolution arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 569-571 (1999).
  5. H. Tsuda, H. Takenouchi, A. Hirano, T. Kurokawa, K. Okamoto, "Performance analysis of a dispersion compensator using arrayed-waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1139-1147 (2000).
  6. K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, K. Moriwaki, "Planar lightwave circuit dispersion equalizer," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2003-2011 (1996).
  7. C. K. Madsen, G. Lenz, A. J. Bruce, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, R. E. Scotti, "Integrated all-pass filters for tunable dispersion and dispersion slope compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1623-1625 (1999).
  8. C. R. Doerr, R. Blum, L. L. Buhl, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, H. Bulthuis, "Colorless tunable optical dispersion compensator based on a silica arrayed-waveguide grating and a polymer thermooptic lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1222-1224 (2006).
  9. C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, "Tunable optical dispersion compensator with increased bandwidth via connection of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer to an arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 560-562 (2008).
  10. J. Ito, H. Tsuda, "Small bend structures using trenches filled with low-refractive index material for miniaturizing silica planar lightwave circuits," J Lightw. Technol., to be published..
  11. Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, S. Matsuura, "Temperature-independent optical filter at 1.55 $\mu$m wavelength using a silica-based athermal waveguide," Electron Lett. 34, 367-369 (1998).
  12. M. Itoh, S. Kamei, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, M. Tamura, Y. Inoue, "Ultra-small 40-channel athermal arrayed-waveguide grating module with low-loss groove design," Electron Lett. 44, 1271-1272 (2008).
  13. S. Kamei, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, T. Kitoh, "Athermal Mach–Zehnder interferometer-synchronised arrayed waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with low loss and wide passband," Electron. Lett. 44, 201-202 (2008).
  14. T. Suzuki, K. Masuda, H. Ishikawa, Y. Abe, S. Kashimura, H. Uetsuka, H. Tsuda, "Dispersion compensator using a compact arrayed-waveguide grating with a dispersion-adjusting structure," IEICE Electron. Express 3, 58-63 (2006).
  15. Y. Ikuma, H. Tsuda, "Tunable optical dispersion compensator using integrated lens-shaped phase shifters in an arrayed-waveguide grating," 34th Eur. Conf. Exhibition Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) P.2.19.

2008 (3)

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, "Tunable optical dispersion compensator with increased bandwidth via connection of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer to an arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 560-562 (2008).

M. Itoh, S. Kamei, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, M. Tamura, Y. Inoue, "Ultra-small 40-channel athermal arrayed-waveguide grating module with low-loss groove design," Electron Lett. 44, 1271-1272 (2008).

S. Kamei, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, T. Kitoh, "Athermal Mach–Zehnder interferometer-synchronised arrayed waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with low loss and wide passband," Electron. Lett. 44, 201-202 (2008).

2006 (4)

T. Suzuki, K. Masuda, H. Ishikawa, Y. Abe, S. Kashimura, H. Uetsuka, H. Tsuda, "Dispersion compensator using a compact arrayed-waveguide grating with a dispersion-adjusting structure," IEICE Electron. Express 3, 58-63 (2006).

L.-S. Yan, T. Luo, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, K.-M. Feng, R. Khosravani, A. E. Willner, "Investigation of performance variations due to the amplitude of group-delay ripple in chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 238-242 (2006).

G.-H. Lee, S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, "Optical dispersion compensator with ${>}4000$-ps/nm tuning range using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) and spatial light modulator (SLM)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1819-1821 (2006).

C. R. Doerr, R. Blum, L. L. Buhl, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, H. Bulthuis, "Colorless tunable optical dispersion compensator based on a silica arrayed-waveguide grating and a polymer thermooptic lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1222-1224 (2006).

2002 (1)

H. Ooi, K. Nakamura, Y. Akiyama, T. Takahara, T. Terahara, Y. Kawahata, H. Isono, G. Ishikawa, "40-Gb/s WDM transmission with virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) variable dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2196-2203 (2002).

2000 (1)

H. Tsuda, H. Takenouchi, A. Hirano, T. Kurokawa, K. Okamoto, "Performance analysis of a dispersion compensator using arrayed-waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1139-1147 (2000).

1999 (2)

C. K. Madsen, G. Lenz, A. J. Bruce, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, R. E. Scotti, "Integrated all-pass filters for tunable dispersion and dispersion slope compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1623-1625 (1999).

H. Tsuda, T. Ishii, K. Naganuma, H. Takenouchi, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, T. Kurokawa, "Second- and third-order dispersion compensator using a high-resolution arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 569-571 (1999).

1998 (1)

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, S. Matsuura, "Temperature-independent optical filter at 1.55 $\mu$m wavelength using a silica-based athermal waveguide," Electron Lett. 34, 367-369 (1998).

1996 (1)

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, K. Moriwaki, "Planar lightwave circuit dispersion equalizer," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2003-2011 (1996).

Electron Lett. (2)

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, S. Matsuura, "Temperature-independent optical filter at 1.55 $\mu$m wavelength using a silica-based athermal waveguide," Electron Lett. 34, 367-369 (1998).

M. Itoh, S. Kamei, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, M. Tamura, Y. Inoue, "Ultra-small 40-channel athermal arrayed-waveguide grating module with low-loss groove design," Electron Lett. 44, 1271-1272 (2008).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Kamei, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, T. Kitoh, "Athermal Mach–Zehnder interferometer-synchronised arrayed waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with low loss and wide passband," Electron. Lett. 44, 201-202 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

G.-H. Lee, S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, "Optical dispersion compensator with ${>}4000$-ps/nm tuning range using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) and spatial light modulator (SLM)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1819-1821 (2006).

H. Tsuda, T. Ishii, K. Naganuma, H. Takenouchi, K. Okamoto, Y. Inoue, T. Kurokawa, "Second- and third-order dispersion compensator using a high-resolution arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 569-571 (1999).

C. K. Madsen, G. Lenz, A. J. Bruce, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, R. E. Scotti, "Integrated all-pass filters for tunable dispersion and dispersion slope compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1623-1625 (1999).

C. R. Doerr, R. Blum, L. L. Buhl, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, H. Bulthuis, "Colorless tunable optical dispersion compensator based on a silica arrayed-waveguide grating and a polymer thermooptic lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1222-1224 (2006).

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, "Tunable optical dispersion compensator with increased bandwidth via connection of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer to an arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 560-562 (2008).

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

T. Suzuki, K. Masuda, H. Ishikawa, Y. Abe, S. Kashimura, H. Uetsuka, H. Tsuda, "Dispersion compensator using a compact arrayed-waveguide grating with a dispersion-adjusting structure," IEICE Electron. Express 3, 58-63 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

H. Ooi, K. Nakamura, Y. Akiyama, T. Takahara, T. Terahara, Y. Kawahata, H. Isono, G. Ishikawa, "40-Gb/s WDM transmission with virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) variable dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2196-2203 (2002).

H. Tsuda, H. Takenouchi, A. Hirano, T. Kurokawa, K. Okamoto, "Performance analysis of a dispersion compensator using arrayed-waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1139-1147 (2000).

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, K. Moriwaki, "Planar lightwave circuit dispersion equalizer," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2003-2011 (1996).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

L.-S. Yan, T. Luo, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, K.-M. Feng, R. Khosravani, A. E. Willner, "Investigation of performance variations due to the amplitude of group-delay ripple in chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 238-242 (2006).

Other (2)

Y. Ikuma, H. Tsuda, "Tunable optical dispersion compensator using integrated lens-shaped phase shifters in an arrayed-waveguide grating," 34th Eur. Conf. Exhibition Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) P.2.19.

J. Ito, H. Tsuda, "Small bend structures using trenches filled with low-refractive index material for miniaturizing silica planar lightwave circuits," J Lightw. Technol., to be published..

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