Abstract

In this paper, we report a novel optical beamformer based on fiber Bragg grating technology capable of adjusting not only main beam direction, but also side-lobe level ratio (SLR) and null positions in the array radiation pattern. This beamformer is compatible with dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) configurations, and consists of two chains of cascaded gratings that can independently control both the phase and the amplitude of the signals, feeding each array element for $2\pi$ and 10 dB, respectively. We characterized the effect of this beamformer on signal quality in an experimental radio-over-fiber (ROF) link by externally modulating and transmitting an IEEE 802.11a compliant signal over the beamformer. The measured error vector magnitude of the received signal confirmed that there was no additive distortion or noise, and consequently, we achieved error-free transmission for the highest possible bit rate. Finally, we demonstrated the capability of this beamformer in beam-/null-steering and SLR reductions by measuring the radiation pattern of the array antenna of an optimized DWDM-ROF link. The measurements are compared to simulations for several examples of radiation patterns.

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2008

Y. Kim, S. Doucet, M. E. Mousa Pasandi, S. LaRochelle, "Optical multicarrier generator for radio-over-fiber systems," J. Opt. Exp. 16, 1068-1075 (2008).

2006

M. M. Sisto, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, "Gain optimization by modulator bias control in radio-over-fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1840-1842 (2006).

2005

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, "Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for electrically tunable time delay lines," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005).

2001

J. Skaar, L. Wang, T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 37, 165-173 (2001).

2000

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andrés, D. Pastor, "Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Technol. 48, 1352-1360 (2000).

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andrés, D. Pastor, "Analysis of a microwave time delay line based on a perturbed uniform fiber Bragg grating operating at constant wavelength," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 430-436 (2000).

1997

J. L. Corral, J. Martì, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1529-1531 (1997).

L. C. Odara, "Applications of antenna arrays to mobile communications. I," Proc. IEEE 85, 1031-1060 (1997).

1995

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Wiliams, I. Benion, C. Edge, J. Fells, "Fiber Bragg-grating true-time delay system: Discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Technol. 45, 1527-1530 (1995).

1994

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, "Programmable fiber optic delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 741-743 (1994).

J. H. Winters, J. Salz, R. D. Gitlin, "The impact of antenna diversity on the capacity of wireless communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 1740-1751 (1994).

1987

1984

J. H. Winters, "Optimum combining in digital mobile radio with co-channel interference," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. SAC-2, 528-539 (1984).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol.

J. Skaar, L. Wang, T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 37, 165-173 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

J. H. Winters, "Optimum combining in digital mobile radio with co-channel interference," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. SAC-2, 528-539 (1984).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, "Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for electrically tunable time delay lines," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, "Programmable fiber optic delay line," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 741-743 (1994).

J. L. Corral, J. Martì, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1529-1531 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

J. H. Winters, J. Salz, R. D. Gitlin, "The impact of antenna diversity on the capacity of wireless communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 1740-1751 (1994).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Technol.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Wiliams, I. Benion, C. Edge, J. Fells, "Fiber Bragg-grating true-time delay system: Discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Technol. 45, 1527-1530 (1995).

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andrés, D. Pastor, "Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Technol. 48, 1352-1360 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol.

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andrés, D. Pastor, "Analysis of a microwave time delay line based on a perturbed uniform fiber Bragg grating operating at constant wavelength," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 430-436 (2000).

M. M. Sisto, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, "Gain optimization by modulator bias control in radio-over-fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1840-1842 (2006).

J. Opt. Exp.

Y. Kim, S. Doucet, M. E. Mousa Pasandi, S. LaRochelle, "Optical multicarrier generator for radio-over-fiber systems," J. Opt. Exp. 16, 1068-1075 (2008).

Proc. IEEE

L. C. Odara, "Applications of antenna arrays to mobile communications. I," Proc. IEEE 85, 1031-1060 (1997).

Other

Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: High-Speed Physical Layer in the 5 GHz Band IEEE Standard 802.11a-1999IEEE (1999 (Supplement to IEEE Std 802.11, 1999 Edition)).

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design (Wiley, 1996).

W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems (Book Style) (Wadsworth, 1993) pp. 123-135.

A. Hilt, "Microwave harmonic generation in fiber-optical links," Proc. 13th Int. Conf. Microw., Radar Wireless Commun. (2000) pp. 693-698.

M. M. Sisto, M. E. Mousa Pasandi, S. Larochelle, L. A. Rusch, "Optical phase and amplitude control for beamforming with multiwavelength gires-tournois Bragg grating cavities," Proc. 4th IASTED Int. Conf. Antennas, Radar, Wave Propag. (2007) pp. 238-243.

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