Abstract

We report simulation and experiment results of modal behaviors of photonic crystal (PhC) tapers on InP-based materials designed to improve coupling efficiency of the PhC waveguide mode into a cleaved-facet single-mode fiber. The modal distributions of transmitted power are simulated by two-dimensional finite difference time domain (2D-FDTD) calculation and the measured far-field patterns are in agreement with these calculations. The 34.4 $\mu$m-long PhC taper with Gaussian curve geometry is demonstrated to have an enhancement of coupling efficiency by a factor of four compared to the direct coupling from a W3 PhC defect waveguide.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
  2. T. D. Happ, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, "Photonic crystal tapers for ultracompact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 26, 1102-1104 (2001).
  3. A. Mekis, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Tapered couplers for efficient interfacing between dielectric and photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 861-865 (2001).
  4. P. Pottier, I. Ntakis, R. M. de la Rue, "Photonic crystal continuous taper for low-loss direct coupling into 2D photonic crystal channel waveguides and further device functionality," Opt. Commun. 223, 339-347 (2003).
  5. K. Dossou, L. C. Botten, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, A. A. Asatryan, S. Chen, J. Brnovic, "Efficient couplers for photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 207-219 (2006).
  6. E. H. Khoo, A. Q. Liu, J. H. Wu, "Nonuniform photonic crystal taper for high-efficiency mode coupling," Opt. Exp. 13, 7748-7759 (2005).
  7. Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, "Modal conversion with artificial materials for photonic-crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 10, 354-359 (2002).
  8. A. Talneau, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, M. Mulot, S. Anand, Ph. Lalanne, "High-bandwidth transmission of an efficient photonic-crystal mode converter," Opt. Lett. 29, 1745-1747 (2004).
  9. Z. Weissman, I. Hendel, "Analysis of periodically segmented waveguide mode expanders," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2053-2058 (1995).
  10. B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).
  11. G. Bendelli, K. Komori, S. Arai, Y. Suematsu, "A new structure for high-power TW-SLA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 42-44 (1991).
  12. C. Wei, F. Groen, M. K. Smit, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, "Integrated optical elliptic couplers: Modeling, design, and applications," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 906-912 (1997).
  13. O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, H. Miyazawa, "Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 30, 1787-1793 (1994).
  14. S. R. Park, B. H. O. , "Novel design concept of waveguide mode adapter for low-loss mode conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 42-44 (2001).
  15. A. Talneau, L. Le Gouezigou, N. Bouadma, "Quantitative measurement of low propagation losses at 1.55 $\mu$m on planar photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 26, 1259-1261 (2001).
  16. Photon Design Software http://www.photond.com.
  17. S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. Krauss, "Transmission properties of two-dimensional photonics crystal channel waveguides," Opt. Quant. Electron 34, 171-181 (2002).
  18. C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, "Modal-reflectivity enhancement by geometry tuning in photonic crystal microcavities," Opt. Express 13, 245-255 (2005).
  19. K. H. Lee, S. Guilet, I. Sagnes, A. Talneau, "Reduced features two-dimensional photonic crystals on InP-based materials etched using Cl$_{2}$/Ar inductively coupled plasma," Proc. 18th Int. Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (2006).
  20. S. J. McNab, N. Moll, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2927-2939 (2003).

2006

K. Dossou, L. C. Botten, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, A. A. Asatryan, S. Chen, J. Brnovic, "Efficient couplers for photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 207-219 (2006).

2005

E. H. Khoo, A. Q. Liu, J. H. Wu, "Nonuniform photonic crystal taper for high-efficiency mode coupling," Opt. Exp. 13, 7748-7759 (2005).

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).

C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, "Modal-reflectivity enhancement by geometry tuning in photonic crystal microcavities," Opt. Express 13, 245-255 (2005).

2004

2003

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2927-2939 (2003).

P. Pottier, I. Ntakis, R. M. de la Rue, "Photonic crystal continuous taper for low-loss direct coupling into 2D photonic crystal channel waveguides and further device functionality," Opt. Commun. 223, 339-347 (2003).

2002

Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, "Modal conversion with artificial materials for photonic-crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 10, 354-359 (2002).

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. Krauss, "Transmission properties of two-dimensional photonics crystal channel waveguides," Opt. Quant. Electron 34, 171-181 (2002).

2001

T. D. Happ, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, "Photonic crystal tapers for ultracompact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 26, 1102-1104 (2001).

A. Talneau, L. Le Gouezigou, N. Bouadma, "Quantitative measurement of low propagation losses at 1.55 $\mu$m on planar photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 26, 1259-1261 (2001).

S. R. Park, B. H. O. , "Novel design concept of waveguide mode adapter for low-loss mode conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 42-44 (2001).

A. Mekis, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Tapered couplers for efficient interfacing between dielectric and photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 861-865 (2001).

1997

C. Wei, F. Groen, M. K. Smit, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, "Integrated optical elliptic couplers: Modeling, design, and applications," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 906-912 (1997).

1996

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).

1995

Z. Weissman, I. Hendel, "Analysis of periodically segmented waveguide mode expanders," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2053-2058 (1995).

1994

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, H. Miyazawa, "Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 30, 1787-1793 (1994).

1991

G. Bendelli, K. Komori, S. Arai, Y. Suematsu, "A new structure for high-power TW-SLA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 42-44 (1991).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol.

A. Mekis, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Tapered couplers for efficient interfacing between dielectric and photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 861-865 (2001).

C. Wei, F. Groen, M. K. Smit, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, "Integrated optical elliptic couplers: Modeling, design, and applications," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 906-912 (1997).

Z. Weissman, I. Hendel, "Analysis of periodically segmented waveguide mode expanders," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2053-2058 (1995).

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron.

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, H. Miyazawa, "Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 30, 1787-1793 (1994).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. R. Park, B. H. O. , "Novel design concept of waveguide mode adapter for low-loss mode conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 42-44 (2001).

G. Bendelli, K. Komori, S. Arai, Y. Suematsu, "A new structure for high-power TW-SLA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 42-44 (1991).

Opt. Commun.

P. Pottier, I. Ntakis, R. M. de la Rue, "Photonic crystal continuous taper for low-loss direct coupling into 2D photonic crystal channel waveguides and further device functionality," Opt. Commun. 223, 339-347 (2003).

K. Dossou, L. C. Botten, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, A. A. Asatryan, S. Chen, J. Brnovic, "Efficient couplers for photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 207-219 (2006).

Opt. Exp.

E. H. Khoo, A. Q. Liu, J. H. Wu, "Nonuniform photonic crystal taper for high-efficiency mode coupling," Opt. Exp. 13, 7748-7759 (2005).

Ph. Lalanne, A. Talneau, "Modal conversion with artificial materials for photonic-crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 10, 354-359 (2002).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quant. Electron

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, M. Rattier, C. Weisbuch, T. Krauss, "Transmission properties of two-dimensional photonics crystal channel waveguides," Opt. Quant. Electron 34, 171-181 (2002).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).

Other

Photon Design Software http://www.photond.com.

K. H. Lee, S. Guilet, I. Sagnes, A. Talneau, "Reduced features two-dimensional photonic crystals on InP-based materials etched using Cl$_{2}$/Ar inductively coupled plasma," Proc. 18th Int. Conf. on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (2006).

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