Abstract

ThisPlease provide the IEEE membership details (membership grades and years in which these were received), if any, for A. L. Sanches and J. V. dos Reis, Jr. paper presents a comprehensive analysis of an optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) network based on two distinct modulation formats, namely on–off keying (OOK) and pulse-position modulation (PPM). We also investigate how each of these modulation formats performs under two distinct 2-D coding schemes, i.e., single-pulse per row (SPR) and multiple-pulse per row (MPR). For both cases, we have accounted for the simultaneous effect of many different dispersion and noise mechanisms (including multiple access interference (MAI)] that impair the overall system performance. We have included the laser relative intensity noise at the transmitter side, the fiber dispersive effects (group velocity dispersion (GVD), and first-order polarization-mode dispersion (PMD)], and beat, avalanche photodiode (APD), and thermal noises at the receiver side. The effect of GVD and PMD, as well as the influence of noises, on the performance of SPR and MPR codes is also investigated. Another effect studied in this paper is the influence of the APD photodetector on the beat noise of an incoherent OCDMA network. To mitigate systems noises and bit error rate (BER), we have adopted a forward error correction (FEC) RS(255, 239) algorithm in both networks investigated here. New expressions for the BER with all noises and dispersion mechanisms were also derived for the SPR and MPR code schemes. Results indicated that OOK and PPM modulation schemes without additional mechanisms to mitigate MAI and other noise effects are not sufficient to accommodate 32 simultaneous users in an error-free environment $({\rm BER} < 10^{- 12})$. This occurs due to the already high BER at the FEC input, which severely affects FECs at the receiver side.

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  1. K. Fouli, M. Maier, "OCDMA and optical coding: Principles, applications, and challenges," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 27-34 (2007).
  2. M. Y. Azizoglu, J. A. Salehi, Y. Li, "Optical CDMA via temporal codes," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1162-1170 (1992).
  3. J. Salehi, "Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).
  4. L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, "Wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems," IEEE Electron. Lett. 30, 1388-1390 (1994).
  5. L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, "Hybrid wavelength hopping/time spreading schemes for use in massive optical networks with increased security," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2636-2647 (1996).
  6. G. C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA${+}$CDMA for fiber-optic networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1426-1434 (1997).
  7. W. C. Kwong, G. C. Yang, V. Baby, C. S. Bres, P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutations for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 117-123 (2005).
  8. K. Yu, N. Park, "Design of new family of two-dimensional wavelength-time spreading codes for optical code division multiple access networks," Electron. Lett. 35, 830-831 (1999).
  9. T. M. Bazan, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "Performance analysis of 2-D time-wavelength OCDMA systems with coherent light sources: Code design considerations," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3583-3589 (2006).
  10. L. Tancevski, M. Tur, J. Budin, I. Andonovic, "Hybrid wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Optoelectron. (1996) pp. 161-166.
  11. W. C. Kwong, G. C. Yang, V. Baby, C. S. Bres, P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutations for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 117-123 (2005).
  12. S. Shurong, H. Yin, Z. Wang, "A new family of 2-D optical orthogonal codes and analisys of its performance in optical CDMA access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1646-1652 (2006).
  13. E. S. Shivaleela, A. Selvarajan, T. Srinivas, "Two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes for fiber-optic CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 647-654 (2005).
  14. C. Yang, J. Huang, Y. Wang, "Multiple-per-row codes for high-speed optical wavelength/time CDMA networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1756-1758 (2007).
  15. R. M. H. Yim, L. R. Chen, J. Bajcsy, "Design and performance of 2-D codes for wavelength-time optical CDMA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 714-716 (2002).
  16. C. C. Yang, J. F. Huang, "Two-dimensional m-matrices coding in spatial/frequency optical CDMA networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 168-170 (2003).
  17. A. J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, V. J. Hernandez, C. V. Bennett, W. J. Lennon, "Design and performance analysis of wavelength/time (W/T) matrix codes for optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2524-2533 (2003).
  18. K. Qiu, S. Kar, C. Zhang, "A novel method for performance improvement of optical CDMA system using alterable concatenated code," Opt. Commun. 272, 336-343 (2006).
  19. R. V. B. Santos-Filho, E. R. Martins, B.-H. V. Borges, "Performance evaluation of a gigabit optical CDMA network for two distinct families of two-dimensional codes and different transmission rates," Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 147-157 (2007).
  20. A. J. Mendez, V. J. Hernandez, R. M. Gagliardi, C. V. Bennett, W. J. Lennon, "Development of pulse positon modulation/optical CDMA (PPM/O-CDMA) for Gb/s fiber optic networking," Proc. IEEE Avionics Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf. (2006) pp. 28-29.
  21. S. Galli, R. Menendez, R. Fischer, R. Runser, E. Narimarov, P. Prucnal, "A novel method for increasing the spectral efficiency of optical CDMA," Proc. IEEE Globecom Conf. (2005) pp. 5.
  22. S. Galli, R. Menendez, E. Narimanov, P. Prucnal, "A novel method for increasing the spectral efficiency of optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, 2133-2143 (2008).
  23. E. Narimanov, W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, P. R. Prucnal, "Shifted carrier-hopping prime codes for multicode keying in wavelength-time O-CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 2150-2156 (2005).
  24. J. Y. Kim, H. V. Poor, "Turbo-coded optical direct-detection CDMA system with PPM modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 312-323 (2001).
  25. J. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part 2: Systems performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834-842 (1989).
  26. H. Kwon, "Optical orthogonal code-division multiple-access system—Part I: APD noise and thermal noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2470-2479 (1994).
  27. G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks (Artech House, 2002).
  28. G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance analysis of extended carrier-hopping prime codes for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 876-881 (2005).
  29. C.-C. Hsu, Y.-C. Chang, G.-C. Yang, C.-L. Chang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance analysis of 2-D O-CDMA codes without the chip-synchronous assumption," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 135-143 (2007).
  30. Y. Zheng, B. J. Yang, X. G. Zhang, "Analytical theory for pulse broadening induced by all-order polarization mode dispersion combined with frequency chirp and group-velocity dispersion," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 725-734 (2003).
  31. K. Murugesan, V. C. Ravichandran, "Effects of relative intensity noise on a multiwavelength OOCDMA communication system," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 24, 307-311 (2000).
  32. F. M. Davidson, X. Sun, "Gaussian approximation versus nearly exact performance analysis of optical communication systems with PPM signaling and APD receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. 36, 1185-1192 (1988).
  33. L. Tancevski, L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the beat noise on the performance of 2-D optical CDMA systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).
  34. H. Lundqvist, G. Karlsson, "On error-correction coding for CDMA PON," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2342-2351 (2005).
  35. S. Zahedi, J. A. Salehi, "Analytical comparison of various fiber-optic CDMA receiver structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1718-1727 (2000).
  36. M. R. Dale, R. M. Gagliardi, "Channel coding for asynchronous fiber optic CDMA communications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2485-2492 (1995).
  37. T. M. Bazan, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "Mitigation of beat noise in time-wavelength optical code-division multiple-access systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4215-4222 (2006).
  38. W. Cong, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, S. J. B. Yoo, "High performance 70 Gbit/s SPECTS optical-CDMA network testbed," Electron. Lett. 40, 1439-1440 (2004).
  39. J. Faucher, S. Ayotte, Z. A. El-Sahn, M. Mukadam, L. A. Rusch, D. V. Plant, "A standalone receiver with multiple access interference rejection, clock and data recovery, and FEC for 2-D," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2123-2125 (2006).
  40. L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3428-3442 (2007).

2008

S. Galli, R. Menendez, E. Narimanov, P. Prucnal, "A novel method for increasing the spectral efficiency of optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, 2133-2143 (2008).

2007

C.-C. Hsu, Y.-C. Chang, G.-C. Yang, C.-L. Chang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance analysis of 2-D O-CDMA codes without the chip-synchronous assumption," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 135-143 (2007).

R. V. B. Santos-Filho, E. R. Martins, B.-H. V. Borges, "Performance evaluation of a gigabit optical CDMA network for two distinct families of two-dimensional codes and different transmission rates," Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 147-157 (2007).

K. Fouli, M. Maier, "OCDMA and optical coding: Principles, applications, and challenges," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 27-34 (2007).

C. Yang, J. Huang, Y. Wang, "Multiple-per-row codes for high-speed optical wavelength/time CDMA networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1756-1758 (2007).

L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3428-3442 (2007).

2006

J. Faucher, S. Ayotte, Z. A. El-Sahn, M. Mukadam, L. A. Rusch, D. V. Plant, "A standalone receiver with multiple access interference rejection, clock and data recovery, and FEC for 2-D," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2123-2125 (2006).

S. Shurong, H. Yin, Z. Wang, "A new family of 2-D optical orthogonal codes and analisys of its performance in optical CDMA access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1646-1652 (2006).

K. Qiu, S. Kar, C. Zhang, "A novel method for performance improvement of optical CDMA system using alterable concatenated code," Opt. Commun. 272, 336-343 (2006).

T. M. Bazan, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "Performance analysis of 2-D time-wavelength OCDMA systems with coherent light sources: Code design considerations," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3583-3589 (2006).

T. M. Bazan, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "Mitigation of beat noise in time-wavelength optical code-division multiple-access systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4215-4222 (2006).

2005

H. Lundqvist, G. Karlsson, "On error-correction coding for CDMA PON," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2342-2351 (2005).

G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance analysis of extended carrier-hopping prime codes for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 876-881 (2005).

E. Narimanov, W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, P. R. Prucnal, "Shifted carrier-hopping prime codes for multicode keying in wavelength-time O-CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 2150-2156 (2005).

W. C. Kwong, G. C. Yang, V. Baby, C. S. Bres, P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutations for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 117-123 (2005).

W. C. Kwong, G. C. Yang, V. Baby, C. S. Bres, P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutations for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 117-123 (2005).

E. S. Shivaleela, A. Selvarajan, T. Srinivas, "Two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes for fiber-optic CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 647-654 (2005).

2004

W. Cong, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, S. J. B. Yoo, "High performance 70 Gbit/s SPECTS optical-CDMA network testbed," Electron. Lett. 40, 1439-1440 (2004).

2003

Y. Zheng, B. J. Yang, X. G. Zhang, "Analytical theory for pulse broadening induced by all-order polarization mode dispersion combined with frequency chirp and group-velocity dispersion," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 725-734 (2003).

C. C. Yang, J. F. Huang, "Two-dimensional m-matrices coding in spatial/frequency optical CDMA networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 168-170 (2003).

A. J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, V. J. Hernandez, C. V. Bennett, W. J. Lennon, "Design and performance analysis of wavelength/time (W/T) matrix codes for optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2524-2533 (2003).

2002

R. M. H. Yim, L. R. Chen, J. Bajcsy, "Design and performance of 2-D codes for wavelength-time optical CDMA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 714-716 (2002).

2001

J. Y. Kim, H. V. Poor, "Turbo-coded optical direct-detection CDMA system with PPM modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 312-323 (2001).

2000

K. Murugesan, V. C. Ravichandran, "Effects of relative intensity noise on a multiwavelength OOCDMA communication system," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 24, 307-311 (2000).

S. Zahedi, J. A. Salehi, "Analytical comparison of various fiber-optic CDMA receiver structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1718-1727 (2000).

L. Tancevski, L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the beat noise on the performance of 2-D optical CDMA systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).

1999

K. Yu, N. Park, "Design of new family of two-dimensional wavelength-time spreading codes for optical code division multiple access networks," Electron. Lett. 35, 830-831 (1999).

1997

G. C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA${+}$CDMA for fiber-optic networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1426-1434 (1997).

1996

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, "Hybrid wavelength hopping/time spreading schemes for use in massive optical networks with increased security," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2636-2647 (1996).

1995

M. R. Dale, R. M. Gagliardi, "Channel coding for asynchronous fiber optic CDMA communications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2485-2492 (1995).

1994

H. Kwon, "Optical orthogonal code-division multiple-access system—Part I: APD noise and thermal noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2470-2479 (1994).

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, "Wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems," IEEE Electron. Lett. 30, 1388-1390 (1994).

1992

M. Y. Azizoglu, J. A. Salehi, Y. Li, "Optical CDMA via temporal codes," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1162-1170 (1992).

1989

J. Salehi, "Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).

J. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part 2: Systems performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834-842 (1989).

1988

F. M. Davidson, X. Sun, "Gaussian approximation versus nearly exact performance analysis of optical communication systems with PPM signaling and APD receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. 36, 1185-1192 (1988).

Electron. Lett.

K. Yu, N. Park, "Design of new family of two-dimensional wavelength-time spreading codes for optical code division multiple access networks," Electron. Lett. 35, 830-831 (1999).

W. Cong, R. P. Scott, V. J. Hernandez, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, S. J. B. Yoo, "High performance 70 Gbit/s SPECTS optical-CDMA network testbed," Electron. Lett. 40, 1439-1440 (2004).

Fiber Integr. Opt.

R. V. B. Santos-Filho, E. R. Martins, B.-H. V. Borges, "Performance evaluation of a gigabit optical CDMA network for two distinct families of two-dimensional codes and different transmission rates," Fiber Integr. Opt. 26, 147-157 (2007).

IEEE Commun. Lett.

L. Tancevski, L. A. Rusch, "Impact of the beat noise on the performance of 2-D optical CDMA systems," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 264-266 (2000).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

K. Fouli, M. Maier, "OCDMA and optical coding: Principles, applications, and challenges," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 27-34 (2007).

IEEE Electron. Lett.

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, "Wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems," IEEE Electron. Lett. 30, 1388-1390 (1994).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

C.-C. Hsu, Y.-C. Chang, G.-C. Yang, C.-L. Chang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance analysis of 2-D O-CDMA codes without the chip-synchronous assumption," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 135-143 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Faucher, S. Ayotte, Z. A. El-Sahn, M. Mukadam, L. A. Rusch, D. V. Plant, "A standalone receiver with multiple access interference rejection, clock and data recovery, and FEC for 2-D," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2123-2125 (2006).

C. Yang, J. Huang, Y. Wang, "Multiple-per-row codes for high-speed optical wavelength/time CDMA networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1756-1758 (2007).

R. M. H. Yim, L. R. Chen, J. Bajcsy, "Design and performance of 2-D codes for wavelength-time optical CDMA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 714-716 (2002).

C. C. Yang, J. F. Huang, "Two-dimensional m-matrices coding in spatial/frequency optical CDMA networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 168-170 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

W. C. Kwong, G. C. Yang, V. Baby, C. S. Bres, P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutations for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 117-123 (2005).

M. Y. Azizoglu, J. A. Salehi, Y. Li, "Optical CDMA via temporal codes," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1162-1170 (1992).

J. Salehi, "Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).

G. C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA${+}$CDMA for fiber-optic networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1426-1434 (1997).

W. C. Kwong, G. C. Yang, V. Baby, C. S. Bres, P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutations for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 117-123 (2005).

F. M. Davidson, X. Sun, "Gaussian approximation versus nearly exact performance analysis of optical communication systems with PPM signaling and APD receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. 36, 1185-1192 (1988).

M. R. Dale, R. M. Gagliardi, "Channel coding for asynchronous fiber optic CDMA communications," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 2485-2492 (1995).

G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance analysis of extended carrier-hopping prime codes for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 876-881 (2005).

S. Galli, R. Menendez, E. Narimanov, P. Prucnal, "A novel method for increasing the spectral efficiency of optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, 2133-2143 (2008).

E. Narimanov, W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, P. R. Prucnal, "Shifted carrier-hopping prime codes for multicode keying in wavelength-time O-CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 2150-2156 (2005).

J. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part 2: Systems performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834-842 (1989).

H. Kwon, "Optical orthogonal code-division multiple-access system—Part I: APD noise and thermal noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2470-2479 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol.

J. Y. Kim, H. V. Poor, "Turbo-coded optical direct-detection CDMA system with PPM modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 312-323 (2001).

T. M. Bazan, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "Mitigation of beat noise in time-wavelength optical code-division multiple-access systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4215-4222 (2006).

H. Lundqvist, G. Karlsson, "On error-correction coding for CDMA PON," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2342-2351 (2005).

S. Zahedi, J. A. Salehi, "Analytical comparison of various fiber-optic CDMA receiver structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1718-1727 (2000).

L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3428-3442 (2007).

T. M. Bazan, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "Performance analysis of 2-D time-wavelength OCDMA systems with coherent light sources: Code design considerations," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3583-3589 (2006).

L. Tancevski, I. Andonovic, "Hybrid wavelength hopping/time spreading schemes for use in massive optical networks with increased security," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2636-2647 (1996).

S. Shurong, H. Yin, Z. Wang, "A new family of 2-D optical orthogonal codes and analisys of its performance in optical CDMA access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1646-1652 (2006).

E. S. Shivaleela, A. Selvarajan, T. Srinivas, "Two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes for fiber-optic CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 647-654 (2005).

A. J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, V. J. Hernandez, C. V. Bennett, W. J. Lennon, "Design and performance analysis of wavelength/time (W/T) matrix codes for optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2524-2533 (2003).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

K. Murugesan, V. C. Ravichandran, "Effects of relative intensity noise on a multiwavelength OOCDMA communication system," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 24, 307-311 (2000).

Opt. Commun.

K. Qiu, S. Kar, C. Zhang, "A novel method for performance improvement of optical CDMA system using alterable concatenated code," Opt. Commun. 272, 336-343 (2006).

Opt. Quantum Electron.

Y. Zheng, B. J. Yang, X. G. Zhang, "Analytical theory for pulse broadening induced by all-order polarization mode dispersion combined with frequency chirp and group-velocity dispersion," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 725-734 (2003).

Other

G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks (Artech House, 2002).

A. J. Mendez, V. J. Hernandez, R. M. Gagliardi, C. V. Bennett, W. J. Lennon, "Development of pulse positon modulation/optical CDMA (PPM/O-CDMA) for Gb/s fiber optic networking," Proc. IEEE Avionics Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf. (2006) pp. 28-29.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, R. Fischer, R. Runser, E. Narimarov, P. Prucnal, "A novel method for increasing the spectral efficiency of optical CDMA," Proc. IEEE Globecom Conf. (2005) pp. 5.

L. Tancevski, M. Tur, J. Budin, I. Andonovic, "Hybrid wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Optoelectron. (1996) pp. 161-166.

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