Abstract

In this paper, a new technique that can suppress the dominant phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) in general delay-line signal processor structures is presented. It is based on a delayed differential technique using a complementary output electro-optic modulator together with appropriate time delay and polarization effects to cancel the PIIN noise at the filter passband frequency. Experimental results using the delayed differential technique demonstrate a PIIN noise reduction of 19 dB at the filter passband for an amplified recirculating delay-line bandpass filter, together with a fourfold increase in the free spectral range and a 10 dB increase in the bandpass filter rejection level.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of high-speed signals using fiber gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 91-108 (2000).
  2. B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, "Novel amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay line processor," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1142-1146 (1992).
  3. N. You, R. A. Minasian, "A novel high-Q optical microwave processor using hybrid delay-line filters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1304-1308 (1999).
  4. B. Ortega, J. Mora, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, R. G. Olcina, "Highly selective microwave photonic filters based on active optical recirculating cavity and tuned modulator hybrid structure," Electron. Lett. 41, 1133-1135 (2005).
  5. E. H. W. Chan, R. A. Minasian, "High-resolution photonics-based interference suppression filter with wide passband," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3144-3149 (2003).
  6. M. Tur, A. Arie, "Phase induced intensity noise in concatenated fiber-optic delay lines," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-6, 120-130 (1988).
  7. M. Tur, B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, "Theory of laser phase noise in recirculating fiber-optic delay lines," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 20-30 (1985).
  8. B. Moslehi, "Analysis of optical phase noise in fiber-optic systems employing a laser source with arbitrary coherence time," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1334-1351 (1986).
  9. E. Shafir, M. Tur, "Phase-induced intensity noise in an incoherent Fabry–Perot interferometer and other recirculating devices," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 4, 77-81 (1987).
  10. A. Arie, M. Tur, "The effects of polarization control on the transfer function and the phase induced intensity noise of a fiber-optic recirculating delay line," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1566-1574 (1988).
  11. J. Capmany, "Investigation of phase-induced intensity noise in amplified fibre-optic recirculating delay line," Electron. Lett. 29, 346-348 (1993).
  12. J. Capmany, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, "New and flexible fiber-optic delay-line filters using chirped Bragg gratings and laser arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1321-1326 (1999).
  13. V. Polo, B. Vidal, J. L. Corral, J. Marti, "Novel tunable photonic microwave filter based on laser arrays and ${\rm N}\times{\rm N}$ AWG-based delay lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 584-586 (2003).
  14. F. Zeng, J. Yao, "Investigation of phase-modulator-based all-optical bandpass microwave filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1721-1728 (2005).
  15. E. H. W. Chan, R. A. Minasian, "Suppression of phase induced intensity noise in optical delay line signal processors using a differential detection technique," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 873-879 (2006).
  16. M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Distributed balanced photodetectors for broadband noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1287 (1999).
  17. A. Eyal, A. Zadok, "Optical noise induced by Gaussian sources in Stokes parameter measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 22, 662-671 (2005).
  18. G. J. Pendock, D. D. Sampson, "Capacity of coherence-multiplexed CDMA networks," Opt. Commun. 143, 109-117 (1997).
  19. R. Helkey, "Relative-intensity-noise cancellation in bandpass external-modulation links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1287 (1999).
  20. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1965).
  21. J. M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice (Prentice-Hall, 2009).
  22. Y. K. Lize, C. Malouin, N. Godbout, S. Lacroix, "Periodic power oscillations from combined effect of polarisation-dependent loss and polarisation evolution in recirculating loops," Electron. Lett. 41, 148-149 (2005).
  23. S. Thaniyavarn, "Wavelength-independent, optical-damage-immune ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$ TE-TM mode converter," Opt. Lett. 11, 39-41 (1986).
  24. I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochting, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
  25. J. X. Chen, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, S. Sinada, J. Hodiak, M. Izutsu, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Tunable lithium niobate waveguide loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2090-2092 (2004).

2006 (1)

E. H. W. Chan, R. A. Minasian, "Suppression of phase induced intensity noise in optical delay line signal processors using a differential detection technique," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 873-879 (2006).

2005 (4)

F. Zeng, J. Yao, "Investigation of phase-modulator-based all-optical bandpass microwave filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1721-1728 (2005).

B. Ortega, J. Mora, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, R. G. Olcina, "Highly selective microwave photonic filters based on active optical recirculating cavity and tuned modulator hybrid structure," Electron. Lett. 41, 1133-1135 (2005).

A. Eyal, A. Zadok, "Optical noise induced by Gaussian sources in Stokes parameter measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 22, 662-671 (2005).

Y. K. Lize, C. Malouin, N. Godbout, S. Lacroix, "Periodic power oscillations from combined effect of polarisation-dependent loss and polarisation evolution in recirculating loops," Electron. Lett. 41, 148-149 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. X. Chen, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, S. Sinada, J. Hodiak, M. Izutsu, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Tunable lithium niobate waveguide loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2090-2092 (2004).

2003 (2)

E. H. W. Chan, R. A. Minasian, "High-resolution photonics-based interference suppression filter with wide passband," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3144-3149 (2003).

V. Polo, B. Vidal, J. L. Corral, J. Marti, "Novel tunable photonic microwave filter based on laser arrays and ${\rm N}\times{\rm N}$ AWG-based delay lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 584-586 (2003).

2000 (1)

R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of high-speed signals using fiber gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 91-108 (2000).

1999 (4)

N. You, R. A. Minasian, "A novel high-Q optical microwave processor using hybrid delay-line filters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1304-1308 (1999).

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Distributed balanced photodetectors for broadband noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1287 (1999).

J. Capmany, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, "New and flexible fiber-optic delay-line filters using chirped Bragg gratings and laser arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1321-1326 (1999).

R. Helkey, "Relative-intensity-noise cancellation in bandpass external-modulation links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1287 (1999).

1997 (1)

G. J. Pendock, D. D. Sampson, "Capacity of coherence-multiplexed CDMA networks," Opt. Commun. 143, 109-117 (1997).

1996 (1)

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochting, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).

1993 (1)

J. Capmany, "Investigation of phase-induced intensity noise in amplified fibre-optic recirculating delay line," Electron. Lett. 29, 346-348 (1993).

1992 (1)

B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, "Novel amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay line processor," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1142-1146 (1992).

1988 (2)

M. Tur, A. Arie, "Phase induced intensity noise in concatenated fiber-optic delay lines," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-6, 120-130 (1988).

A. Arie, M. Tur, "The effects of polarization control on the transfer function and the phase induced intensity noise of a fiber-optic recirculating delay line," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1566-1574 (1988).

1987 (1)

E. Shafir, M. Tur, "Phase-induced intensity noise in an incoherent Fabry–Perot interferometer and other recirculating devices," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 4, 77-81 (1987).

1986 (2)

B. Moslehi, "Analysis of optical phase noise in fiber-optic systems employing a laser source with arbitrary coherence time," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1334-1351 (1986).

S. Thaniyavarn, "Wavelength-independent, optical-damage-immune ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$ TE-TM mode converter," Opt. Lett. 11, 39-41 (1986).

1985 (1)

M. Tur, B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, "Theory of laser phase noise in recirculating fiber-optic delay lines," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 20-30 (1985).

Electron. Lett. (3)

B. Ortega, J. Mora, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, R. G. Olcina, "Highly selective microwave photonic filters based on active optical recirculating cavity and tuned modulator hybrid structure," Electron. Lett. 41, 1133-1135 (2005).

J. Capmany, "Investigation of phase-induced intensity noise in amplified fibre-optic recirculating delay line," Electron. Lett. 29, 346-348 (1993).

Y. K. Lize, C. Malouin, N. Godbout, S. Lacroix, "Periodic power oscillations from combined effect of polarisation-dependent loss and polarisation evolution in recirculating loops," Electron. Lett. 41, 148-149 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochting, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. X. Chen, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, S. Sinada, J. Hodiak, M. Izutsu, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Tunable lithium niobate waveguide loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2090-2092 (2004).

V. Polo, B. Vidal, J. L. Corral, J. Marti, "Novel tunable photonic microwave filter based on laser arrays and ${\rm N}\times{\rm N}$ AWG-based delay lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 584-586 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (5)

J. Capmany, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, "New and flexible fiber-optic delay-line filters using chirped Bragg gratings and laser arrays," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1321-1326 (1999).

E. H. W. Chan, R. A. Minasian, "Suppression of phase induced intensity noise in optical delay line signal processors using a differential detection technique," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 873-879 (2006).

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Distributed balanced photodetectors for broadband noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1287 (1999).

N. You, R. A. Minasian, "A novel high-Q optical microwave processor using hybrid delay-line filters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1304-1308 (1999).

R. Helkey, "Relative-intensity-noise cancellation in bandpass external-modulation links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1287 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

A. Arie, M. Tur, "The effects of polarization control on the transfer function and the phase induced intensity noise of a fiber-optic recirculating delay line," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1566-1574 (1988).

B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, "Novel amplified fiber-optic recirculating delay line processor," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1142-1146 (1992).

E. H. W. Chan, R. A. Minasian, "High-resolution photonics-based interference suppression filter with wide passband," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3144-3149 (2003).

M. Tur, A. Arie, "Phase induced intensity noise in concatenated fiber-optic delay lines," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-6, 120-130 (1988).

M. Tur, B. Moslehi, J. W. Goodman, "Theory of laser phase noise in recirculating fiber-optic delay lines," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 20-30 (1985).

B. Moslehi, "Analysis of optical phase noise in fiber-optic systems employing a laser source with arbitrary coherence time," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1334-1351 (1986).

F. Zeng, J. Yao, "Investigation of phase-modulator-based all-optical bandpass microwave filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1721-1728 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (2)

A. Eyal, A. Zadok, "Optical noise induced by Gaussian sources in Stokes parameter measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 22, 662-671 (2005).

E. Shafir, M. Tur, "Phase-induced intensity noise in an incoherent Fabry–Perot interferometer and other recirculating devices," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 4, 77-81 (1987).

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. J. Pendock, D. D. Sampson, "Capacity of coherence-multiplexed CDMA networks," Opt. Commun. 143, 109-117 (1997).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of high-speed signals using fiber gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 91-108 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1965).

J. M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice (Prentice-Hall, 2009).

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