Abstract

In this paper, we investigate experimentally and via simulation the pros and cons of a narrow filter receiver for differential quadrature phase-shift keying based on a single optical filter and eschewing the conventional asymmetrical Mach–Zehnder interferometer structure. We quantify the performance differences between the two receivers, allowing system designers and operators to determine when the less complex narrow filter receiver might be the appropriate choice. We numerically optimize the 3-dB bandwidth and center frequency of the narrow filter and show it is more robust to carrier frequency detuning than the conventional solution. We show that the narrow filter receiver is more tolerant to chromatic dispersion (CD) than the conventional one, and equally tolerant to first-order polarization-mode dispersion. We show the impact of the 3-dB bandwidth on the receiver performance when CD accumulates. Finally, we show via experiments and simulations that the 3 dB advantage of the conventional receiver vanishes when the nonlinear impairments are fiber nonlinearities; comparing the two receivers at the optimum launch power for a 25$\,\times\,$80 km system, the difference in optical SNR margin is reduced to ${\sim} {\hbox {1.6}}$ dB. Experiments are conducted at 42 Gb/s using a commercially available narrow filter for reception.

© 2009 IEEE

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2008 (5)

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, "100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: From laboratory experiments to field trials," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3388-3402 (2008).

L. Christen, Y. Lize, S. Nuccio, L. Paraschis, A. Willner, "Experimental demonstration of reduced complexity 43-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK rate-tunable receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1166-1168 (2008).

G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, E. Ciaramella, "Simultaneous demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 791-793 (2008).

I. Lyubomirsky, C. Chien, Y. Wang, "Optical DQPSK receiver with enhanced dispersion tolerance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 511-513 (2008).

Y. K. Lize, X. Wu, M. Nazarathy, Y. Atzmon, L. Christen, S. Nuccio, M. Faucher, N. Godbout, A. E. Willner, "Chromatic dispersion tolerance in optimized NRZ-, RZ-, and CSRZ-DPSK demodulation," Opt. Exp. 16, 4228-4236 (2008).

2007 (3)

Y. Yadin, M. Orenstein, M. Shtaif, "Balanced versus single-ended detection of DPSK: Degraded advantage due to fiber nonlinearities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 164-166 (2007).

C. Malouin, J. Bennike, T. J. Schmidt, "Differential phase-shift keying receiver design applied to strong optical filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3536-3542 (2007).

D. van den Borne, G. Khoe, H. de Waardt, E. Gottwald, "Bit pattern dependence in optical DQPSK modulation," Electron. Lett. 43, (2007).

2006 (6)

P. Serena, A. Orlandini, A. Bononi, "Parametric-gain approach to the analysis of single-channel DPSK/DQPSK systems with nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2026-2037 (2006).

G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, "On the joint effect of receiver impairments on direct-detection DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1323-1333 (2006).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363-1364 (2006).

A. D'Errico, R. Proietti, L. Giorgi, G. Contestabile, E. Ciaramella, "WDM-DPSK detection by means of frequency-periodic Gaussian filtering," Electron. Lett. 42, 112-114 (2006).

P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

2005 (2)

C. W. Chow, H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent DPSK demodulation using a birefringent fiber loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1313-1315 (2005).

I. Lyubomirsky, C.-C. Chien, "DPSK demodulator based on optical discriminator filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 492-494 (2005).

2004 (4)

E. Ciaramella, G. Contestabile, A. D'Errico, "A novel scheme to detect optical DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2138-2140 (2004).

E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Narrow filtered DPSK implements order-1 CAPS optical line coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 662-664 (2004).

J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, "Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 362-371 (2004).

K. Ho, "The effect of interferometer phase error on direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 308-310 (2004).

2003 (4)

H. Kim, P. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1887-1891 (2003).

E. Forestieri, "(Corrections to) evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1592 (2003).

P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, H. Kim, "Impact of filtering on RZ-DPSK reception," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 840-842 (2003).

H. Kim, A. H. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 320-322 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. Kim, A. Gnauck, "Chirp characteristics of dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator with a finite DC extinction ratio," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 298-300 (2002).

2001 (1)

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical approach to the evaluation of the impact of fiber parametric gain on the bit error rate," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2154-2163 (2001).

2000 (1)

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).

1997 (1)

S. Walklin, J. Conradi, "Effect of Mach–Zehnder modulator DC extinction ratio on residual chirp-induced dispersion in 10-Gb/s binary and AM-PSK duobinary lightwave systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1400-1402 (1997).

1994 (1)

J.-S. Lee, C.-S. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).

1990 (1)

Electron. Lett. (3)

A. D'Errico, R. Proietti, L. Giorgi, G. Contestabile, E. Ciaramella, "WDM-DPSK detection by means of frequency-periodic Gaussian filtering," Electron. Lett. 42, 112-114 (2006).

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363-1364 (2006).

D. van den Borne, G. Khoe, H. de Waardt, E. Gottwald, "Bit pattern dependence in optical DQPSK modulation," Electron. Lett. 43, (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (14)

S. Walklin, J. Conradi, "Effect of Mach–Zehnder modulator DC extinction ratio on residual chirp-induced dispersion in 10-Gb/s binary and AM-PSK duobinary lightwave systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1400-1402 (1997).

H. Kim, A. Gnauck, "Chirp characteristics of dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator with a finite DC extinction ratio," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 298-300 (2002).

K. Ho, "The effect of interferometer phase error on direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 308-310 (2004).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).

G. Contestabile, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, M. Presi, A. D'Errico, E. Ciaramella, "Simultaneous demodulation and clock-recovery of 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK signals using a multiwavelength Gaussian filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 791-793 (2008).

I. Lyubomirsky, C. Chien, Y. Wang, "Optical DQPSK receiver with enhanced dispersion tolerance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 511-513 (2008).

H. Kim, A. H. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 320-322 (2003).

Y. Yadin, M. Orenstein, M. Shtaif, "Balanced versus single-ended detection of DPSK: Degraded advantage due to fiber nonlinearities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 164-166 (2007).

E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Narrow filtered DPSK implements order-1 CAPS optical line coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 662-664 (2004).

E. Ciaramella, G. Contestabile, A. D'Errico, "A novel scheme to detect optical DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2138-2140 (2004).

C. W. Chow, H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent DPSK demodulation using a birefringent fiber loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1313-1315 (2005).

L. Christen, Y. Lize, S. Nuccio, L. Paraschis, A. Willner, "Experimental demonstration of reduced complexity 43-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK rate-tunable receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1166-1168 (2008).

P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, H. Kim, "Impact of filtering on RZ-DPSK reception," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 840-842 (2003).

I. Lyubomirsky, C.-C. Chien, "DPSK demodulator based on optical discriminator filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 492-494 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical approach to the evaluation of the impact of fiber parametric gain on the bit error rate," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2154-2163 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, "Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 362-371 (2004).

P. Serena, A. Orlandini, A. Bononi, "Parametric-gain approach to the analysis of single-channel DPSK/DQPSK systems with nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2026-2037 (2006).

H. Kim, P. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1887-1891 (2003).

J.-S. Lee, C.-S. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).

E. Forestieri, "(Corrections to) evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1592 (2003).

G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, "On the joint effect of receiver impairments on direct-detection DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1323-1333 (2006).

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, "100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: From laboratory experiments to field trials," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3388-3402 (2008).

C. Malouin, J. Bennike, T. J. Schmidt, "Differential phase-shift keying receiver design applied to strong optical filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3536-3542 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. K. Lize, X. Wu, M. Nazarathy, Y. Atzmon, L. Christen, S. Nuccio, M. Faucher, N. Godbout, A. E. Willner, "Chromatic dispersion tolerance in optimized NRZ-, RZ-, and CSRZ-DPSK demodulation," Opt. Exp. 16, 4228-4236 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

Other (7)

L. Christen, Y. K. Lize, S. Nuccio, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, A. E. Willner, L. Paraschis, "Fiber Bragg grating balanced DPSK demodulation," Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (LEOS 2006) () pp. 563-564.

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, F. Bakhti, "Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal," Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2001) () pp. 456-457.

V. Mikhailov, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Experimental investigation of partial demodulation of 85.3 gb/s DQPSK signals," Proc. 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2008) pp. 1-2.

R. A. Griffin, "Integrated DQPSK transmitters," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2005 () pp. 3.

M. Haris, J. Yu, G. Chang, "Impact of free spectral range optimization on RZ/NRZ DQPSK modulation format with strong optical filtering for ultrahigh data rate systems," Proc. 20th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (LEOS 2007) () pp. 141-142.

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems: Modeling, Methodology, and Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2000).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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