Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the coupling of light from a GaAs microdisk laser into a waveguide. Starting from an air cladding, we examine several configurations to couple light into the waveguide with different cladding structures aimed to foster light coupling into the waveguide: photonic crystal and metallic (plasmonic cladding). In these coupling schemes, we tried to optimize the coupling of the emitted light into the waveguide, while maintaining a reasonable quality factor to allow the lasing operation of the device. We show that a plasmonic layer, introduced beside the waveguide can lead to a significant improvement in the coupling efficiency, reaching an efficiency close to 80%.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of modified single-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).
  2. H. T. Hattori, I. McKerracher, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, R. M. De La Rue, "In-plane coupling of light from InP-based photonic crystal band-edge lasers into single-mode waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 279-286 (2007).
  3. R. M. Cazo, C. L. Barbosa, H. T. Hattori, V. M. Schneider, "Steady-state analysis of a directional square lattice band-edge photonic crystal laser," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 210-214 (2005).
  4. H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, "Optically pumped in-plane photonic crystal micro-cavity laser arrays coupled to waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1374-1380 (2008).
  5. S. Ando, N. Kobayashi, H. Ando, "Triangular-facet laser with optical waveguides grown by selective area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2L411-L413 (1996).
  6. S. Ando, N. Kobayashi, H. Ando, "Triangular-facet lasers coupled by a rectangular optical waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2L76-L78 (1997).
  7. Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. M. Wang, "Analysis and numerical simulation of eigenmode characteristics for semiconductor lasers with an equilateral triangle micro-resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 100-107 (2001).
  8. H. T. Hattori, "Analysis of optically pumped equilateral triangular microlasers with three mode-selective trenches," Appl. Opt. 47, 2178-2185 (2008).
  9. W. H. Guo, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Y. Lu, L. J. Yu, "Mode quality factor based on far-field emission for square resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 479-481 (2004).
  10. S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Spectral shift and Q-change of circular and square-shaped optical micro-cavity modes due to periodic sidewall surface roughness," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1792-179 (2004).
  11. H. T. Hattori, "Modal analysis of one-dimensional non-uniform arrays of square resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 25, 1873-1881 (2008).
  12. Y. Z. Huang, K. J. Che, Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, Y. Du, Z. C. Fan, "Directional emission InP/GaInAsP square-resonator microlasers," Opt. Lett. 33, 2170-2172 (2008).
  13. H. T. Hattori, D. Liu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, "Large square resonator laser with quasi-single-mode operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 359-361 (2009).
  14. M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, "Ultra-small and ultra-low threshold microdisk injection laser-design, fabrication, lasing characteristics and spontaneous emission factor," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 673-681 (1999).
  15. A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, "Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561-563 (1993).
  16. S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).
  17. H. T. Hattori, C. Seassal, E. Touraille, P. Rojo-Romeo, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, P. Viktorovitch, L. DiCioccio, M. Zussy, L. El Melhaoui, J. M. Fedeli, "Heterogeneous integration of microdisk lasers on silicon strip waveguides for optical interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 223-225 (2006).
  18. X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, L. Xu, "Unidirectional single-frequency lasing from a ring-spiral coupled microcavity laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081105-1-081105-3 (2008) article no. 081105.
  19. X. Luo, A. W. Poon, "Coupled spiral-shaped microdisk resonators with non evanescent asymmetric inter-cavity coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 17313-17322 (2007).
  20. Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, "Mode coupling and vertical radiation loss for whispering-gallery modes in 3-D microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1411-1416 (2008).
  21. C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
  22. E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photon. 2, 161-164 (2008).
  23. K. Leosson, T. Nikolajsen, A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Long range surface plasmon polariton nanowire waveguides for device applications," Opt. Exp. 14, 314-319 (2006).
  24. J. A. Porto, L. M. Moreno, F. J. G. Vidal, "Optical bistability in sub-wavelength slit apertures containing nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. B 70, 081402-1-081402-4 (2004) article no. 081402.
  25. C. Y. Fong, A. W. Poon, "Planar corner-cut square microcavities: Ray optics and FDTD analysis," Opt. Exp. 12, 4864-4874 (2004).
  26. S. C. Hagness, D. Hafizadeh, S. T. Ho, A. Taflove, "FDTD microcavity simulations: Design and experimental realization of waveguide-coupled single-mode ring and whispering-gallery-mode disk resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2154-2165 (1997).
  27. S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. D. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Directional emission, increased free spectral range, and mode Q-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1175-1182 (2006).
  28. V. Van, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, P. T. Ho, "Propagation loss in single-mode GaAs-AlGaAs microring resonators: Measurement and model," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1734-1739 (2001).
  29. J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, W. G. Bi, R. C. Tiberio, C. W. Tu, S. T. Ho, "Directional light output from photonic-wire microcavity semiconductor lasers," IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 8, 968-970 (1996).
  30. B. Cagnac, J. P. Faroux, Lasers: Interaction Lumiere-Atomes (EDP Sciences et CNRS ed., 2002).
  31. H. T. Hattori, V. M. Schneider, R. M. Cazo, C. L. Barbosa, "Analysis of strategies to improve the directionality of square lattice band-edge photonic crystal structures," Appl. Opt. 44, 3069-3076 (2005).
  32. H. Altug, J. Vuckovic, "Photonic crystal nanocavity array laser," Opt. Exp. 13, 8819-8828 (2005).

2009 (1)

H. T. Hattori, D. Liu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, "Large square resonator laser with quasi-single-mode operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 359-361 (2009).

2008 (7)

X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, L. Xu, "Unidirectional single-frequency lasing from a ring-spiral coupled microcavity laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081105-1-081105-3 (2008) article no. 081105.

Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, "Mode coupling and vertical radiation loss for whispering-gallery modes in 3-D microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1411-1416 (2008).

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photon. 2, 161-164 (2008).

H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, "Optically pumped in-plane photonic crystal micro-cavity laser arrays coupled to waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1374-1380 (2008).

H. T. Hattori, "Modal analysis of one-dimensional non-uniform arrays of square resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 25, 1873-1881 (2008).

H. T. Hattori, "Analysis of optically pumped equilateral triangular microlasers with three mode-selective trenches," Appl. Opt. 47, 2178-2185 (2008).

Y. Z. Huang, K. J. Che, Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, Y. Du, Z. C. Fan, "Directional emission InP/GaInAsP square-resonator microlasers," Opt. Lett. 33, 2170-2172 (2008).

2007 (3)

H. T. Hattori, I. McKerracher, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, R. M. De La Rue, "In-plane coupling of light from InP-based photonic crystal band-edge lasers into single-mode waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 279-286 (2007).

C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).

X. Luo, A. W. Poon, "Coupled spiral-shaped microdisk resonators with non evanescent asymmetric inter-cavity coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 17313-17322 (2007).

2006 (3)

H. T. Hattori, C. Seassal, E. Touraille, P. Rojo-Romeo, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, P. Viktorovitch, L. DiCioccio, M. Zussy, L. El Melhaoui, J. M. Fedeli, "Heterogeneous integration of microdisk lasers on silicon strip waveguides for optical interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 223-225 (2006).

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. D. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Directional emission, increased free spectral range, and mode Q-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1175-1182 (2006).

K. Leosson, T. Nikolajsen, A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Long range surface plasmon polariton nanowire waveguides for device applications," Opt. Exp. 14, 314-319 (2006).

2005 (3)

R. M. Cazo, C. L. Barbosa, H. T. Hattori, V. M. Schneider, "Steady-state analysis of a directional square lattice band-edge photonic crystal laser," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 210-214 (2005).

H. Altug, J. Vuckovic, "Photonic crystal nanocavity array laser," Opt. Exp. 13, 8819-8828 (2005).

H. T. Hattori, V. M. Schneider, R. M. Cazo, C. L. Barbosa, "Analysis of strategies to improve the directionality of square lattice band-edge photonic crystal structures," Appl. Opt. 44, 3069-3076 (2005).

2004 (4)

W. H. Guo, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Y. Lu, L. J. Yu, "Mode quality factor based on far-field emission for square resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 479-481 (2004).

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Spectral shift and Q-change of circular and square-shaped optical micro-cavity modes due to periodic sidewall surface roughness," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1792-179 (2004).

J. A. Porto, L. M. Moreno, F. J. G. Vidal, "Optical bistability in sub-wavelength slit apertures containing nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. B 70, 081402-1-081402-4 (2004) article no. 081402.

C. Y. Fong, A. W. Poon, "Planar corner-cut square microcavities: Ray optics and FDTD analysis," Opt. Exp. 12, 4864-4874 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of modified single-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).

2001 (2)

Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. M. Wang, "Analysis and numerical simulation of eigenmode characteristics for semiconductor lasers with an equilateral triangle micro-resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 100-107 (2001).

V. Van, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, P. T. Ho, "Propagation loss in single-mode GaAs-AlGaAs microring resonators: Measurement and model," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1734-1739 (2001).

1999 (1)

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, "Ultra-small and ultra-low threshold microdisk injection laser-design, fabrication, lasing characteristics and spontaneous emission factor," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 673-681 (1999).

1997 (2)

S. C. Hagness, D. Hafizadeh, S. T. Ho, A. Taflove, "FDTD microcavity simulations: Design and experimental realization of waveguide-coupled single-mode ring and whispering-gallery-mode disk resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2154-2165 (1997).

S. Ando, N. Kobayashi, H. Ando, "Triangular-facet lasers coupled by a rectangular optical waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2L76-L78 (1997).

1996 (2)

S. Ando, N. Kobayashi, H. Ando, "Triangular-facet laser with optical waveguides grown by selective area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2L411-L413 (1996).

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, W. G. Bi, R. C. Tiberio, C. W. Tu, S. T. Ho, "Directional light output from photonic-wire microcavity semiconductor lasers," IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 8, 968-970 (1996).

1993 (1)

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, "Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561-563 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, "Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561-563 (1993).

X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, L. Xu, "Unidirectional single-frequency lasing from a ring-spiral coupled microcavity laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081105-1-081105-3 (2008) article no. 081105.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

H. G. Park, J. K. Hwang, J. Huh, H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Characteristics of modified single-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353-1365 (2002).

H. T. Hattori, I. McKerracher, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, R. M. De La Rue, "In-plane coupling of light from InP-based photonic crystal band-edge lasers into single-mode waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 279-286 (2007).

Y. Z. Huang, W. H. Guo, Q. M. Wang, "Analysis and numerical simulation of eigenmode characteristics for semiconductor lasers with an equilateral triangle micro-resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 100-107 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Fujita, A. Sakai, T. Baba, "Ultra-small and ultra-low threshold microdisk injection laser-design, fabrication, lasing characteristics and spontaneous emission factor," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 673-681 (1999).

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. D. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Directional emission, increased free spectral range, and mode Q-factors in 2-D wavelength-scale optical microcavity structures," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1175-1182 (2006).

IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, W. G. Bi, R. C. Tiberio, C. W. Tu, S. T. Ho, "Directional light output from photonic-wire microcavity semiconductor lasers," IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 8, 968-970 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

H. T. Hattori, D. Liu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, "Large square resonator laser with quasi-single-mode operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 359-361 (2009).

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, "Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1330-1332 (2003).

H. T. Hattori, C. Seassal, E. Touraille, P. Rojo-Romeo, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, P. Viktorovitch, L. DiCioccio, M. Zussy, L. El Melhaoui, J. M. Fedeli, "Heterogeneous integration of microdisk lasers on silicon strip waveguides for optical interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 223-225 (2006).

W. H. Guo, Y. Z. Huang, Q. Y. Lu, L. J. Yu, "Mode quality factor based on far-field emission for square resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 479-481 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, "Optically pumped in-plane photonic crystal micro-cavity laser arrays coupled to waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1374-1380 (2008).

Y. Z. Huang, Y. D. Yang, "Mode coupling and vertical radiation loss for whispering-gallery modes in 3-D microcavities," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1411-1416 (2008).

V. Van, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, P. T. Ho, "Propagation loss in single-mode GaAs-AlGaAs microring resonators: Measurement and model," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1734-1739 (2001).

S. C. Hagness, D. Hafizadeh, S. T. Ho, A. Taflove, "FDTD microcavity simulations: Design and experimental realization of waveguide-coupled single-mode ring and whispering-gallery-mode disk resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2154-2165 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (2)

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. I. Nosich, "Spectral shift and Q-change of circular and square-shaped optical micro-cavity modes due to periodic sidewall surface roughness," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1792-179 (2004).

H. T. Hattori, "Modal analysis of one-dimensional non-uniform arrays of square resonators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 25, 1873-1881 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Ando, N. Kobayashi, H. Ando, "Triangular-facet laser with optical waveguides grown by selective area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2L411-L413 (1996).

S. Ando, N. Kobayashi, H. Ando, "Triangular-facet lasers coupled by a rectangular optical waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2L76-L78 (1997).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. M. Cazo, C. L. Barbosa, H. T. Hattori, V. M. Schneider, "Steady-state analysis of a directional square lattice band-edge photonic crystal laser," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 210-214 (2005).

Nat. Photon. (1)

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photon. 2, 161-164 (2008).

Nature (1)

C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (4)

X. Luo, A. W. Poon, "Coupled spiral-shaped microdisk resonators with non evanescent asymmetric inter-cavity coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 17313-17322 (2007).

K. Leosson, T. Nikolajsen, A. Boltasseva, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Long range surface plasmon polariton nanowire waveguides for device applications," Opt. Exp. 14, 314-319 (2006).

C. Y. Fong, A. W. Poon, "Planar corner-cut square microcavities: Ray optics and FDTD analysis," Opt. Exp. 12, 4864-4874 (2004).

H. Altug, J. Vuckovic, "Photonic crystal nanocavity array laser," Opt. Exp. 13, 8819-8828 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. A. Porto, L. M. Moreno, F. J. G. Vidal, "Optical bistability in sub-wavelength slit apertures containing nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. B 70, 081402-1-081402-4 (2004) article no. 081402.

Other (1)

B. Cagnac, J. P. Faroux, Lasers: Interaction Lumiere-Atomes (EDP Sciences et CNRS ed., 2002).

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