Abstract

In this paper, a design of an integrated wavelength-insensitive laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) has been proposed using planar lightwave circuit (PLC). The proposed LDV uses arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) that can be fabricated using PLC technology. Its characteristics are simulated using a design model based on grating equations for AWGs. The simulation results indicate that wavelength-insensitive operation can be almost obtained by optimizing the design parameters of the proposed structure without assembly of bulk diffractive gratings or other optical elements.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. L. Duff, G. Plantier, J.-C. Valière, T. Bosch, "Analog sensor design proposal for laser Doppler velocimetry," IEEE Sensors J. 4, 257-261 (2004).
  2. M. Haruna, K. Kasazumi, H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic differential laser Doppler velocimeter with a micro Fresnel lens array," Conf. Integr. Guided-Wave Opt. (IGWO 1989) .
  3. T. Ito, R. Sawada, E. Higurashi, "Integrated microlaser Doppler velocimeter," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 30-34 (1999).
  4. J. Schmidt, R. Volkel, W. Stork, J. T. Sheridan, J. Schwider, N. Steibl, "Diffractive beam splitter for laser Doppler velocimetry," Opt. Lett. 17, 1240-1242 (1992).
  5. R. Sawada, K. Hane, E. Higurashi, Optical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Ohmsha, 2002).
  6. H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
  7. M. K. Smit, "New focusing and dispersive planar component based on an optical phased array," Electron. Lett. 24, 385-386 (1988).
  8. M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).
  9. H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, I. Nishi, "Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution," Electron. Lett. 26, 87-88 (1990).
  10. H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, I. Nishi, "Wavelength multiplexer based on ${\rm SiO}_{2}$-${\rm Ta}_{2}{\rm O}_{5}$ arrayed-waveguide grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 989-995 (1994).
  11. H. Uetsuka, "AWG technologies for dense WDM applications," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 393-402 (2004).
  12. S. Kashimura, M. Takeuchi, K. Maru, H. Okano, "Loss reduction of ${\rm GeO}_{2}$-doped silica waveguide with high refractive index difference by high-temperature annealing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2L521-L523 (2000).
  13. F. Horst, C. Berendsen, R. Beyeler, G.-L. Bona, R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, D. Wiesmann, "Tunable ring resonator dispersion compensators realized in high-refractive-index contrast SiON technology," Proc. ECOC 2000 MunichGermany () (Post Deadline Paper 2.2).
  14. Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexer with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).
  15. T. Shimoda, K. Suzuki, S. Takaesu, M. Horie, A. Furukawa, "A low-loss, compact wide-FSR-AWG using SiON planar lightwave circuit technology," Proc. OFC (2003) pp. 703.
  16. K. Maru, K. Matsui, H. Ishikawa, Y. Abe, S. Kashimura, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, "Super-high-$\Delta $ a thermal arrayed waveguide grating with resin-filled trenches in slab region," Electron. Lett. 40, 374-375 (2004).
  17. K. Maru, Y. Abe, M. Ito, H. Ishikawa, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, T. Mizumoto, "2.5%-$\Delta $ silica-based a thermal arrayed waveguide grating employing spot-size converters based on segmented core," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2325-2327 (2005).
  18. K. Maru, T. Hakuta, Y. Abe, M. Ito, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, T. Mizumoto, "Spot-size converter using vertical ridge taper for low fibre-coupling loss in 2.5%-$\Delta $ silica waveguides," Electron. Lett. 42, 219-220 (2006).
  19. C. R. Doerr, K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).
  20. K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, H. Uetsuka, "Demonstration of flat-passband multi/demultiplexer using multi-input arrayed waveguide grating combined with cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2187-2197 (2007).
  21. A. J. Ticknor, B. P. McGinnis, T. Tarter, M. Yan, "Efficient passive and active wavelength-stabilization techniques for AWGs and integrated optical filters," Proc. OFC AnaheimCA (2005) NThL3.
  22. R. Cole, D. Quirke, C. Calkins, Apparatus and method to dice integrated circuits from a wafer using a pressurized jet U.S. Patent 6 705 925 (2004).
  23. J. W. Foreman, E. W. George, J. L. Jetton, R. D. Lewis, J. R. Thornton, H. J. Watson, "8C2-fluid flow measurements with a laser Doppler velocimeter," J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 260-266 (1966).
  24. M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
  25. H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

2007 (1)

K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, H. Uetsuka, "Demonstration of flat-passband multi/demultiplexer using multi-input arrayed waveguide grating combined with cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2187-2197 (2007).

2006 (2)

K. Maru, T. Hakuta, Y. Abe, M. Ito, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, T. Mizumoto, "Spot-size converter using vertical ridge taper for low fibre-coupling loss in 2.5%-$\Delta $ silica waveguides," Electron. Lett. 42, 219-220 (2006).

C. R. Doerr, K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).

2005 (1)

K. Maru, Y. Abe, M. Ito, H. Ishikawa, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, T. Mizumoto, "2.5%-$\Delta $ silica-based a thermal arrayed waveguide grating employing spot-size converters based on segmented core," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2325-2327 (2005).

2004 (3)

K. Maru, K. Matsui, H. Ishikawa, Y. Abe, S. Kashimura, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, "Super-high-$\Delta $ a thermal arrayed waveguide grating with resin-filled trenches in slab region," Electron. Lett. 40, 374-375 (2004).

A. L. Duff, G. Plantier, J.-C. Valière, T. Bosch, "Analog sensor design proposal for laser Doppler velocimetry," IEEE Sensors J. 4, 257-261 (2004).

H. Uetsuka, "AWG technologies for dense WDM applications," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 393-402 (2004).

2002 (1)

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexer with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).

2000 (1)

S. Kashimura, M. Takeuchi, K. Maru, H. Okano, "Loss reduction of ${\rm GeO}_{2}$-doped silica waveguide with high refractive index difference by high-temperature annealing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2L521-L523 (2000).

1999 (1)

T. Ito, R. Sawada, E. Higurashi, "Integrated microlaser Doppler velocimeter," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 30-34 (1999).

1996 (1)

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

1994 (1)

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, I. Nishi, "Wavelength multiplexer based on ${\rm SiO}_{2}$-${\rm Ta}_{2}{\rm O}_{5}$ arrayed-waveguide grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 989-995 (1994).

1992 (1)

1990 (2)

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, I. Nishi, "Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution," Electron. Lett. 26, 87-88 (1990).

1988 (1)

M. K. Smit, "New focusing and dispersive planar component based on an optical phased array," Electron. Lett. 24, 385-386 (1988).

1966 (1)

J. W. Foreman, E. W. George, J. L. Jetton, R. D. Lewis, J. R. Thornton, H. J. Watson, "8C2-fluid flow measurements with a laser Doppler velocimeter," J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 260-266 (1966).

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. K. Smit, "New focusing and dispersive planar component based on an optical phased array," Electron. Lett. 24, 385-386 (1988).

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, I. Nishi, "Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution," Electron. Lett. 26, 87-88 (1990).

K. Maru, K. Matsui, H. Ishikawa, Y. Abe, S. Kashimura, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, "Super-high-$\Delta $ a thermal arrayed waveguide grating with resin-filled trenches in slab region," Electron. Lett. 40, 374-375 (2004).

K. Maru, T. Hakuta, Y. Abe, M. Ito, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, T. Mizumoto, "Spot-size converter using vertical ridge taper for low fibre-coupling loss in 2.5%-$\Delta $ silica waveguides," Electron. Lett. 42, 219-220 (2006).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

A. L. Duff, G. Plantier, J.-C. Valière, T. Bosch, "Analog sensor design proposal for laser Doppler velocimetry," IEEE Sensors J. 4, 257-261 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

T. Ito, R. Sawada, E. Higurashi, "Integrated microlaser Doppler velocimeter," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 30-34 (1999).

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, I. Nishi, "Wavelength multiplexer based on ${\rm SiO}_{2}$-${\rm Ta}_{2}{\rm O}_{5}$ arrayed-waveguide grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 989-995 (1994).

C. R. Doerr, K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).

K. Maru, T. Mizumoto, H. Uetsuka, "Demonstration of flat-passband multi/demultiplexer using multi-input arrayed waveguide grating combined with cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2187-2197 (2007).

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. W. Foreman, E. W. George, J. L. Jetton, R. D. Lewis, J. R. Thornton, H. J. Watson, "8C2-fluid flow measurements with a laser Doppler velocimeter," J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 260-266 (1966).

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

H. Uetsuka, "AWG technologies for dense WDM applications," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 393-402 (2004).

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexer with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Kashimura, M. Takeuchi, K. Maru, H. Okano, "Loss reduction of ${\rm GeO}_{2}$-doped silica waveguide with high refractive index difference by high-temperature annealing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2L521-L523 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Maru, Y. Abe, M. Ito, H. Ishikawa, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, T. Mizumoto, "2.5%-$\Delta $ silica-based a thermal arrayed waveguide grating employing spot-size converters based on segmented core," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2325-2327 (2005).

Other (8)

T. Shimoda, K. Suzuki, S. Takaesu, M. Horie, A. Furukawa, "A low-loss, compact wide-FSR-AWG using SiON planar lightwave circuit technology," Proc. OFC (2003) pp. 703.

F. Horst, C. Berendsen, R. Beyeler, G.-L. Bona, R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, D. Wiesmann, "Tunable ring resonator dispersion compensators realized in high-refractive-index contrast SiON technology," Proc. ECOC 2000 MunichGermany () (Post Deadline Paper 2.2).

M. Haruna, K. Kasazumi, H. Nishihara, "Integrated-optic differential laser Doppler velocimeter with a micro Fresnel lens array," Conf. Integr. Guided-Wave Opt. (IGWO 1989) .

R. Sawada, K. Hane, E. Higurashi, Optical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Ohmsha, 2002).

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

A. J. Ticknor, B. P. McGinnis, T. Tarter, M. Yan, "Efficient passive and active wavelength-stabilization techniques for AWGs and integrated optical filters," Proc. OFC AnaheimCA (2005) NThL3.

R. Cole, D. Quirke, C. Calkins, Apparatus and method to dice integrated circuits from a wafer using a pressurized jet U.S. Patent 6 705 925 (2004).

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