Abstract

Differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation is being considered as a possible candidate for future optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) transmission systems. In a single channel link, the balanced interferometric DPSK receiver exhibits increased tolerance against amplified spontaneous emitting (ASE) noise and fiber nonlinear effects. In this paper, a model is presented that can be used to estimate the performance of a multichannel DPSK system taking into account the influence of interchannel phenomena, namely cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four wave mixing (FWM), in the phase noise statistics. The model is based on an approximate solution of the fiber propagation equation and the multicanonical Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. It provides an efficient tool that can be used to investigate the influence of many link design parameters such as channel spacing, launch power, and fiber dispersion. The model is illustrated in the comparison of the performance of multichannel DPSK to on-off keying (OOK) systems. It is verified that, even in the presence of interchannel effects, DPSK modulation greatly enhances the system performance compared to OOK.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. J.-P. Laude, DWDM Fundamentals, Components and Applications (Artech House, 2002).
  2. M. J. Li, "Recent progress in fiber dispersion compensators," ECOC'01 AmsterdamThe Netherlands (2001) paper ThM1.1.
  3. L. Grüner-Nielsen, "Dispersion-compensating fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
  4. Q. Yu, A. Shanbhag, "Electronic data processing for error and dispersion compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4514-4525 (2006).
  5. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase shift keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
  6. I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Non-linearity tolerance of optical modulation formats in non-zero dispersion fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2760-2762 (2005).
  7. X. Liu, "Nonlinear effects in phase shift keyed transmission," Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper ThM4.
  8. A. P. T. Lau, S. Rabbani, J. M. Kahn, "On the statistics of intrachannel four-wave mixing in phase-modulated optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2128-2135 (2008).
  9. J. P. Gordon, L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers," OSA Opt. Lett. 15, 1351-1353 (1990).
  10. K.-P. Ho, Phase Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).
  11. I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, A. Chipouras, T. Sphicopoulos, "Estimation of the four-wave mixing noise probability-density function by the multicanonical Monte Carlo method," OSA Opt. Lett. 30, 11-13 (2005).
  12. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).
  13. I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, A. Chipouras, T. Sphicopoulos, "New techniques for the suppression of the four-wave mixing-induced distortion in nonzero dispersion fiber WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1137-1144 (2005).
  14. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).
  15. R. Hozhonner, C. R. Menyuk, "Use of multicanonical Monte Carlo simulations to obtain accurate bit error rates in optical communication systems," OSA Opt. Lett. 28, 1894-1896 (2003).
  16. M. Eiselt, "Limits on WDM systems due to four-wave mixing: A statistical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2261-2267 (1999).
  17. K.-P. Ho, "Analysis of direct-detection dpsk signal with homodyne crosstalk," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, (2005).
  18. T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Performance analysis of differential phase shift keying optical receivers in the presence of in-band crosstalk noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4084-4092 (2005).
  19. K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multichannel transmissions," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).
  20. K.-P. Ho, H.-C. Wang, "Cross-phase modulation induced crosstalk for RZ-DPSK signals in dispersive transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 396-403 (2006).
  21. D. Yevick, "Multicanonical communication system modeling—Application to PMD statistics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1512-1514 (2002).
  22. D. P. Landau, K. Binder, A Guide to Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002).
  23. B. Xu, M. Brandt-Pearce, "Comparison of FWM- and XPM-induced crosstalk using the volterra series transfer function method," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 40-53 (2003).

2008 (1)

A. P. T. Lau, S. Rabbani, J. M. Kahn, "On the statistics of intrachannel four-wave mixing in phase-modulated optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2128-2135 (2008).

2006 (2)

Q. Yu, A. Shanbhag, "Electronic data processing for error and dispersion compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4514-4525 (2006).

K.-P. Ho, H.-C. Wang, "Cross-phase modulation induced crosstalk for RZ-DPSK signals in dispersive transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 396-403 (2006).

2005 (7)

K.-P. Ho, "Analysis of direct-detection dpsk signal with homodyne crosstalk," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, (2005).

T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Performance analysis of differential phase shift keying optical receivers in the presence of in-band crosstalk noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4084-4092 (2005).

L. Grüner-Nielsen, "Dispersion-compensating fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase shift keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Non-linearity tolerance of optical modulation formats in non-zero dispersion fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2760-2762 (2005).

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, A. Chipouras, T. Sphicopoulos, "Estimation of the four-wave mixing noise probability-density function by the multicanonical Monte Carlo method," OSA Opt. Lett. 30, 11-13 (2005).

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, A. Chipouras, T. Sphicopoulos, "New techniques for the suppression of the four-wave mixing-induced distortion in nonzero dispersion fiber WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1137-1144 (2005).

2003 (2)

R. Hozhonner, C. R. Menyuk, "Use of multicanonical Monte Carlo simulations to obtain accurate bit error rates in optical communication systems," OSA Opt. Lett. 28, 1894-1896 (2003).

B. Xu, M. Brandt-Pearce, "Comparison of FWM- and XPM-induced crosstalk using the volterra series transfer function method," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 40-53 (2003).

2002 (1)

D. Yevick, "Multicanonical communication system modeling—Application to PMD statistics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1512-1514 (2002).

1999 (1)

M. Eiselt, "Limits on WDM systems due to four-wave mixing: A statistical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2261-2267 (1999).

1994 (1)

K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multichannel transmissions," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).

1990 (1)

J. P. Gordon, L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers," OSA Opt. Lett. 15, 1351-1353 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Non-linearity tolerance of optical modulation formats in non-zero dispersion fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2760-2762 (2005).

D. Yevick, "Multicanonical communication system modeling—Application to PMD statistics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1512-1514 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (11)

B. Xu, M. Brandt-Pearce, "Comparison of FWM- and XPM-induced crosstalk using the volterra series transfer function method," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 40-53 (2003).

A. P. T. Lau, S. Rabbani, J. M. Kahn, "On the statistics of intrachannel four-wave mixing in phase-modulated optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2128-2135 (2008).

L. Grüner-Nielsen, "Dispersion-compensating fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).

Q. Yu, A. Shanbhag, "Electronic data processing for error and dispersion compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4514-4525 (2006).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase shift keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, A. Chipouras, T. Sphicopoulos, "New techniques for the suppression of the four-wave mixing-induced distortion in nonzero dispersion fiber WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1137-1144 (2005).

M. Eiselt, "Limits on WDM systems due to four-wave mixing: A statistical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2261-2267 (1999).

K.-P. Ho, "Analysis of direct-detection dpsk signal with homodyne crosstalk," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, (2005).

T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Performance analysis of differential phase shift keying optical receivers in the presence of in-band crosstalk noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4084-4092 (2005).

K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four-wave mixing in multichannel transmissions," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).

K.-P. Ho, H.-C. Wang, "Cross-phase modulation induced crosstalk for RZ-DPSK signals in dispersive transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 396-403 (2006).

OSA Opt. Lett. (3)

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, A. Chipouras, T. Sphicopoulos, "Estimation of the four-wave mixing noise probability-density function by the multicanonical Monte Carlo method," OSA Opt. Lett. 30, 11-13 (2005).

J. P. Gordon, L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers," OSA Opt. Lett. 15, 1351-1353 (1990).

R. Hozhonner, C. R. Menyuk, "Use of multicanonical Monte Carlo simulations to obtain accurate bit error rates in optical communication systems," OSA Opt. Lett. 28, 1894-1896 (2003).

Other (7)

D. P. Landau, K. Binder, A Guide to Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002).

K.-P. Ho, Phase Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).

X. Liu, "Nonlinear effects in phase shift keyed transmission," Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper ThM4.

J.-P. Laude, DWDM Fundamentals, Components and Applications (Artech House, 2002).

M. J. Li, "Recent progress in fiber dispersion compensators," ECOC'01 AmsterdamThe Netherlands (2001) paper ThM1.1.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

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