Abstract

We present an all-optical adaptive-antenna radio over fiber transport system that uses proven, commercially-available components to effectively deliver standard-compliant optical signaling to adaptive multiantenna arrays for current and emerging radio technology implementations. The system is based on a directly-modulated reflective semiconductor amplifier (R-SOA) and exploits the interplay between transmission-line dispersion and tunable optical filtering to achieve flexible true time delay, with $2\pi$ beam steering at the different antennas. The system was characterized, then successfully tested with two types of signals defined in IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) standard for wireless networks: a 90 Mbps single-carrier signal (64-QAM at 2.4 GHz) and a 78 Mbps multitone orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) signal. The power budget of this configuration supports a 4-element antenna array.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. S. Cherry, "Edholm's law of bandwidth," IEEE Spectrum 41, 58-60 (2004).
  2. K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, "PON in adolescence: From TDMA to WDM-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 26-34 (2008).
  3. C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, "WDM-PON experiences in Korea (invited)," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 451-464 (2007).
  4. W. Konhäuser, "Broadband wireless access solutions—Progressive challenges and potential value of next generation mobile networks," Wireless Pers. Commun. 37, 243-259 (2006).
  5. IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Cttee. IEEE Std.802.16-2004 (2004).
  6. IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Cttee. IEEE Std. 802.16e-2005 (2006).
  7. K. H. Teo, Z. Tao, J. Zhang, "The mobile broadband WiMAX standard [standards in a nutshell]," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24, 144-148 (2007).
  8. S. Cherry, "South Korea pushes mobile broadband," IEEE Spectrum 42, 14-16 (2005).
  9. C. Nam, S. Kim, H. Lee, "The role of WiBro: Filling the gaps in mobile broadband technologies," Technolog. Forecast. Social Change 75, 438-448 (2008).
  10. S. J. Vaughan-Nichols, "Mobile WiMAX: The next wireless battle ground," Computer 41, 16-18 (2008).
  11. Unapproved draft standard IEEE P802.11n/D4.00 (2008).
  12. R. Nee, V. K. Jones, G. Awater, A. Zelst, J. Gardner, G. Steele, "The 802.11n MIMO-OFDM standard for wireless LAN and beyond," Wireless Pers. Commun. 37, 445-453 (2006).
  13. Y. Xiao, "IEEE 802.11n: Enhancements for higher throughput in wireless LANs," IEEE Wireless Commun. 12, 82-91 (2005).
  14. S. Alamouti, "A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1451-1458 (1998).
  15. V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, "A differential detection scheme for transmit diversity," IEEE J. S. Ar. Cm. 18, 1169-1174 (2000).
  16. J. Winters, "Smart antennas for wireless systems," IEEE Pers. Commun. 5, 23-27 (1998).
  17. M. Tamburrini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, "Optical feed for a phased array microwave antenna," Electron. Lett. 23, 680-681 (1987).
  18. E. Toughlian, H. Zmuda, "A photonic variable RF delay line for phased array antennas," J. Lightw. Tech. 8, 1824-1828 (1990).
  19. W. Ng, A. Walson, G. Tangonan, J. Lee, I. Newberg, "Optical steering of dual band microwave phased array antenna using semiconductor laser switching," Electron. Lett. 26, 791-793 (1990).
  20. M. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M.-S. Choi, J. den Besten, F. Soares, M. Smit, J. Marti, "Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory. Tech. 54, 887-899 (2006).
  21. B. Vidal, D. Madrid, J. Coffal, J. Marti, "Novel photonic true-time-delay beamformer based on the free-spectral-range periodicity of arrayed waveguide gratings and fiber dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1614-1616 (2002).
  22. L. Jofre, C. Stoltidou, S. Blanch, T. Mengual, B. Vidal, J. Marti, I. McKenzie, J. M. del Cura, "Optically beamformed wideband array performance," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 56, 1594-1604 (2008).
  23. R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, "Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347-1349 (1993).
  24. B. Zhou, X. Zheng, X. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Guo, B. Zhou, "Optical beamforming networks based on broadband optical source and chirped fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 733-735 (2008).
  25. K. Prince, A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, I. T. Monroy, E. Ciaramella, "All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical—Wireless transmission system," 21st Meet. IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Society Newport BeachCA (2008).
  26. D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, D.-S. Shiu, P. Smith, A. Naguib, "From theory to practice: An overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 281-302 (2003).
  27. A. Paulraj, D. Gore, R. Nabar, H. Bölcskei, "An overview of MIMO communications—A key to gigabit wireless," Proc. IEEE 92, 198-218 (2004).
  28. G. Pendock, D. Sampson, "Transmission performance of high bit rate spectrum-sliced WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2141-2148 (1996).
  29. G. Foschini, M. Gans, "On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas," Wireless Personal Commun. 6, 311-335 (1998).
  30. M. Stoytchev, H. Safar, A. Moustakas, S. Simon, "Compact antenna arrays for MIMO applications," Proc. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Int. Symp. (2001) pp. 708-711.
  31. A. D. McCoy, B. C. Thomsen, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, "Experimental study on receiver filtering effects in a spectrum-sliced incoherent light WDM system using SOA based noise reduction," Proc. ECOC (2003) pp. 866-867.
  32. K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, K. R. Oh, Y. C. Chung, "Operating wavelength range of 1.25-Gb/s WDM PON implemented by using uncooled RSOA's," OFC/NFOEC San DiegoCA (2008) oTuH3.
  33. L. K. Oxenløwe, Optical Signal Processing With Semiconductor Components Ph.D. dissertation Tech. Univ. DenmarkKgs. LyngbyDenmark (2002).
  34. J. Hargreaves, P. Juodawlkis, J. Plant, J. Donnelly, J. Twichell, F. Rana, R. Ram, "Residual phase-noise measurements of actively mode-locked fiber and semiconductor lasers," Proc. LEOS (2001) pp. 115-116.
  35. C. H. Cox, IIIH. Roussell, R. Ram, R. Helkey, "Broadband, directly modulated analog fiber link with positive intrinsic gain and reduced noise figure," Proc. Int. Topical Mtg. on Microw. Phot. (1998) pp. 157-160.
  36. C. H. Cox, IIIE. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. E. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 906-920 (2006).
  37. C. H. Cox, IIIAnalog Optical Links: Theory and Practice (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004) pp. 205-217.
  38. H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, Y.-L. Liu, "Intermodulation distortion suppression in a full-duplex radio-on-fiber ring network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 602-604 (2004).
  39. L. A. Johansson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, L. A. Coldren, "Improving the performance of sampled-grating DBR laser-based analog optical transmitters," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 807-815 (2008).
  40. A. Razibul Islam, G. Town, A. Tariqul Islam, "PAPR and SFDR of an OFDM/RoF link," Proc. OECC/ACOFT (2008) pp. 1-2.

2008

K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, "PON in adolescence: From TDMA to WDM-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 26-34 (2008).

C. Nam, S. Kim, H. Lee, "The role of WiBro: Filling the gaps in mobile broadband technologies," Technolog. Forecast. Social Change 75, 438-448 (2008).

S. J. Vaughan-Nichols, "Mobile WiMAX: The next wireless battle ground," Computer 41, 16-18 (2008).

L. Jofre, C. Stoltidou, S. Blanch, T. Mengual, B. Vidal, J. Marti, I. McKenzie, J. M. del Cura, "Optically beamformed wideband array performance," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 56, 1594-1604 (2008).

B. Zhou, X. Zheng, X. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Guo, B. Zhou, "Optical beamforming networks based on broadband optical source and chirped fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 733-735 (2008).

L. A. Johansson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, L. A. Coldren, "Improving the performance of sampled-grating DBR laser-based analog optical transmitters," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 807-815 (2008).

2007

C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, "WDM-PON experiences in Korea (invited)," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 451-464 (2007).

K. H. Teo, Z. Tao, J. Zhang, "The mobile broadband WiMAX standard [standards in a nutshell]," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24, 144-148 (2007).

2006

W. Konhäuser, "Broadband wireless access solutions—Progressive challenges and potential value of next generation mobile networks," Wireless Pers. Commun. 37, 243-259 (2006).

R. Nee, V. K. Jones, G. Awater, A. Zelst, J. Gardner, G. Steele, "The 802.11n MIMO-OFDM standard for wireless LAN and beyond," Wireless Pers. Commun. 37, 445-453 (2006).

M. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M.-S. Choi, J. den Besten, F. Soares, M. Smit, J. Marti, "Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory. Tech. 54, 887-899 (2006).

C. H. Cox, IIIE. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. E. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 906-920 (2006).

2005

Y. Xiao, "IEEE 802.11n: Enhancements for higher throughput in wireless LANs," IEEE Wireless Commun. 12, 82-91 (2005).

S. Cherry, "South Korea pushes mobile broadband," IEEE Spectrum 42, 14-16 (2005).

2004

H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, Y.-L. Liu, "Intermodulation distortion suppression in a full-duplex radio-on-fiber ring network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 602-604 (2004).

S. Cherry, "Edholm's law of bandwidth," IEEE Spectrum 41, 58-60 (2004).

A. Paulraj, D. Gore, R. Nabar, H. Bölcskei, "An overview of MIMO communications—A key to gigabit wireless," Proc. IEEE 92, 198-218 (2004).

2003

D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, D.-S. Shiu, P. Smith, A. Naguib, "From theory to practice: An overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 281-302 (2003).

2002

B. Vidal, D. Madrid, J. Coffal, J. Marti, "Novel photonic true-time-delay beamformer based on the free-spectral-range periodicity of arrayed waveguide gratings and fiber dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1614-1616 (2002).

2000

V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, "A differential detection scheme for transmit diversity," IEEE J. S. Ar. Cm. 18, 1169-1174 (2000).

1998

J. Winters, "Smart antennas for wireless systems," IEEE Pers. Commun. 5, 23-27 (1998).

S. Alamouti, "A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1451-1458 (1998).

G. Foschini, M. Gans, "On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas," Wireless Personal Commun. 6, 311-335 (1998).

1996

G. Pendock, D. Sampson, "Transmission performance of high bit rate spectrum-sliced WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2141-2148 (1996).

1993

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, "Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347-1349 (1993).

1990

E. Toughlian, H. Zmuda, "A photonic variable RF delay line for phased array antennas," J. Lightw. Tech. 8, 1824-1828 (1990).

W. Ng, A. Walson, G. Tangonan, J. Lee, I. Newberg, "Optical steering of dual band microwave phased array antenna using semiconductor laser switching," Electron. Lett. 26, 791-793 (1990).

1987

M. Tamburrini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, "Optical feed for a phased array microwave antenna," Electron. Lett. 23, 680-681 (1987).

Computer

S. J. Vaughan-Nichols, "Mobile WiMAX: The next wireless battle ground," Computer 41, 16-18 (2008).

Electron. Lett.

M. Tamburrini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, "Optical feed for a phased array microwave antenna," Electron. Lett. 23, 680-681 (1987).

W. Ng, A. Walson, G. Tangonan, J. Lee, I. Newberg, "Optical steering of dual band microwave phased array antenna using semiconductor laser switching," Electron. Lett. 26, 791-793 (1990).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

K. Grobe, J.-P. Elbers, "PON in adolescence: From TDMA to WDM-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 26-34 (2008).

IEEE J. S. Ar. Cm.

V. Tarokh, H. Jafarkhani, "A differential detection scheme for transmit diversity," IEEE J. S. Ar. Cm. 18, 1169-1174 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, D.-S. Shiu, P. Smith, A. Naguib, "From theory to practice: An overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 281-302 (2003).

S. Alamouti, "A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1451-1458 (1998).

IEEE Pers. Commun.

J. Winters, "Smart antennas for wireless systems," IEEE Pers. Commun. 5, 23-27 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Vidal, D. Madrid, J. Coffal, J. Marti, "Novel photonic true-time-delay beamformer based on the free-spectral-range periodicity of arrayed waveguide gratings and fiber dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1614-1616 (2002).

R. Esman, M. Frankel, J. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. Parent, D. Stilwell, D. Cooper, "Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1347-1349 (1993).

B. Zhou, X. Zheng, X. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Guo, B. Zhou, "Optical beamforming networks based on broadband optical source and chirped fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 733-735 (2008).

H.-H. Lu, S.-J. Tzeng, Y.-L. Liu, "Intermodulation distortion suppression in a full-duplex radio-on-fiber ring network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 602-604 (2004).

IEEE Signal Process. Mag.

K. H. Teo, Z. Tao, J. Zhang, "The mobile broadband WiMAX standard [standards in a nutshell]," IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24, 144-148 (2007).

IEEE Spectrum

S. Cherry, "South Korea pushes mobile broadband," IEEE Spectrum 42, 14-16 (2005).

S. Cherry, "Edholm's law of bandwidth," IEEE Spectrum 41, 58-60 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat.

L. Jofre, C. Stoltidou, S. Blanch, T. Mengual, B. Vidal, J. Marti, I. McKenzie, J. M. del Cura, "Optically beamformed wideband array performance," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 56, 1594-1604 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

C. H. Cox, IIIE. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. E. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 906-920 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory. Tech.

M. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M.-S. Choi, J. den Besten, F. Soares, M. Smit, J. Marti, "Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory. Tech. 54, 887-899 (2006).

IEEE Wireless Commun.

Y. Xiao, "IEEE 802.11n: Enhancements for higher throughput in wireless LANs," IEEE Wireless Commun. 12, 82-91 (2005).

J. Lightw. Tech.

E. Toughlian, H. Zmuda, "A photonic variable RF delay line for phased array antennas," J. Lightw. Tech. 8, 1824-1828 (1990).

J. Lightw. Technol.

L. A. Johansson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, L. A. Coldren, "Improving the performance of sampled-grating DBR laser-based analog optical transmitters," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 807-815 (2008).

G. Pendock, D. Sampson, "Transmission performance of high bit rate spectrum-sliced WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2141-2148 (1996).

J. Opt. Netw.

Proc. IEEE

A. Paulraj, D. Gore, R. Nabar, H. Bölcskei, "An overview of MIMO communications—A key to gigabit wireless," Proc. IEEE 92, 198-218 (2004).

Technolog. Forecast. Social Change

C. Nam, S. Kim, H. Lee, "The role of WiBro: Filling the gaps in mobile broadband technologies," Technolog. Forecast. Social Change 75, 438-448 (2008).

Wireless Pers. Commun.

W. Konhäuser, "Broadband wireless access solutions—Progressive challenges and potential value of next generation mobile networks," Wireless Pers. Commun. 37, 243-259 (2006).

R. Nee, V. K. Jones, G. Awater, A. Zelst, J. Gardner, G. Steele, "The 802.11n MIMO-OFDM standard for wireless LAN and beyond," Wireless Pers. Commun. 37, 445-453 (2006).

Wireless Personal Commun.

G. Foschini, M. Gans, "On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas," Wireless Personal Commun. 6, 311-335 (1998).

Other

M. Stoytchev, H. Safar, A. Moustakas, S. Simon, "Compact antenna arrays for MIMO applications," Proc. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Int. Symp. (2001) pp. 708-711.

A. D. McCoy, B. C. Thomsen, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, "Experimental study on receiver filtering effects in a spectrum-sliced incoherent light WDM system using SOA based noise reduction," Proc. ECOC (2003) pp. 866-867.

K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, K. R. Oh, Y. C. Chung, "Operating wavelength range of 1.25-Gb/s WDM PON implemented by using uncooled RSOA's," OFC/NFOEC San DiegoCA (2008) oTuH3.

L. K. Oxenløwe, Optical Signal Processing With Semiconductor Components Ph.D. dissertation Tech. Univ. DenmarkKgs. LyngbyDenmark (2002).

J. Hargreaves, P. Juodawlkis, J. Plant, J. Donnelly, J. Twichell, F. Rana, R. Ram, "Residual phase-noise measurements of actively mode-locked fiber and semiconductor lasers," Proc. LEOS (2001) pp. 115-116.

C. H. Cox, IIIH. Roussell, R. Ram, R. Helkey, "Broadband, directly modulated analog fiber link with positive intrinsic gain and reduced noise figure," Proc. Int. Topical Mtg. on Microw. Phot. (1998) pp. 157-160.

K. Prince, A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, I. T. Monroy, E. Ciaramella, "All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical—Wireless transmission system," 21st Meet. IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Society Newport BeachCA (2008).

A. Razibul Islam, G. Town, A. Tariqul Islam, "PAPR and SFDR of an OFDM/RoF link," Proc. OECC/ACOFT (2008) pp. 1-2.

C. H. Cox, IIIAnalog Optical Links: Theory and Practice (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004) pp. 205-217.

Unapproved draft standard IEEE P802.11n/D4.00 (2008).

IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Cttee. IEEE Std.802.16-2004 (2004).

IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Cttee. IEEE Std. 802.16e-2005 (2006).

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