Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate a novel multiwavelength L-band Brillouin–erbium fiber laser utilizing nonlinear amplifying loop mirror. The erbium-doped fiber section in the fiber loop mirror provides efficient amplification of Brillouin pump (BP) to generate the stimulated Brillouin scattering in the single-mode fiber coil. The laser structure can achieve symmetry breaking of the loop without requirements to an asymmetric coupler or polarization controller. The proposed fiber laser has a low threshold power of about 10 mW to create the first Brillouin–Stokes signal. The maximum number of 27 Stokes signals with a spacing of 0.089 nm is achieved by setting the BP wavelength at 1604 nm and its BP power is set at 2.2 mW.

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  1. S. Yamashita, K. Hotata, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using intracavity etalon and cooled by liquid nitrogen," Electron. Lett. 32, 1298-1299 (1996).
  2. N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, "24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium doped fiber-ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1459-1461 (1996).
  3. K. J. Zhou, D. Y. Zhou, F. Z. Dong, N. Q. Ngo, "Room-temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser employing sinusoidal phase-modulation feedback," Opt. Lett. 28, 893-895 (2003).
  4. X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Y. Chai, E. Leong, C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).
  5. X. Feng, H. Y. Tam, H. Liu, P. K. A. Wai, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser employing a nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 268, 278-281 (2006).
  6. G. J. Cowle, D. Y. Stepanov, "Hybrid Brillouin/erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1250-1252 (1996).
  7. G. J. Cowle, D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1465-1467 (1996).
  8. D. S. Lim, H. K. Lee, K. H. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. T. Ahn, M. Y. Jeon, "Generation of multiorder Stokes and antiStokes signals in a Brillouin erbium-fiber laser with a Sagnac loop mirror," Opt. Lett. 23, 1671-1673 (1998).
  9. S. W. Harun, N. Tamchek, P. Poopalan, H. Ahmed, "Efficient multiwavelength generation of Brillouin/erbium fiber laser at 1600-nm region," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 506-508 (2002).
  10. T. A. Haddud, M. H. Al-Mansoori, A. K. Zamzuri, S. Shaharudin, M. K. Abdullah, M. A. Mahdi, "24-line of Brillouin-erbium fiber utilizing Fabry Perot cavity in L-band," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 45, 165-167 (2005).
  11. M. A. Mahdi, M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. Premaratne, "Enhancement of multiwavelength generation in the L-band by using a novel Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with a passive EDF booster section," Opt. Exp. 15, 11570-11575 (2007).
  12. M. E. Fermann, F. Haberl, M. Hofer, H. Hochreiter, "Nonlinear amplified loop mirror," Opt. Lett. 15, 752-754 (1990).
  13. K. Smith, N. J. Doran, P. G. Wigley, "Pulse shaping, compression, and pedestal suppression employing a nonlinear-optical loop mirror," Opt. Lett. 15, 1294-1296 (1990).
  14. J. Wu, Y. Li, C. Lou, Y. Gao, "Optimization of pulse compression with an unbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 180, 43-47 (2000).
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Application of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).
  16. G. J. Cowle, D. Y. Stepanov, Y. T. Chieng, "Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1198-1204 (1997).
  17. K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, K. Okamoto, "10-GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 577-578 (2001).
  18. S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, C. Lin, "Experimental and theoretical study of hyperfine WDM demultiplexer performance using the virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA)," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1456-1467 (2005).
  19. S. P. Smith, F. Zarinetchi, S. Ezekiel, "Narrow linewidth stimulated Brillouin fiber laser and applications," Opt. Lett. 16, 393-395 (1991).
  20. A. Debut, S. Randoux, J. Zemmouri, "Linewidth narrowing in Brillouin lasers: Theoretical analysis," Phys. Rev. A62, 023803-1-023803-4 (2000).
  21. A. Debut, S. Randoux, J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical study of linewidth narrowing in Brillouin fiber ring lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 18, 556-567 (2001).
  22. D. Y. Stepanov, G. J. Cowle, "Properties of Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1049-1057 (1997).
  23. K. Iiyama, F. Demura, S. Takamiya, "Experimental study of lasing characteristics of Brillouin/erbium optical fiber laser," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1304-1309 (2005).
  24. J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, S. Jiang, "Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1813-1815 (2006).
  25. S. Molin, G. Baili, M. Alouini, D. Dolfi, J. Huignard, "Experimental investigation of relative intensity noise in Brillouin fiber ring lasers for microwave photonics applications," Opt. Lett. 33, 1681-1683 (2008).
  26. J. Geng, S. Jiang, "Pump-to-Stokes transfer of relative intensity noise in Brillouin fiber ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 11-13 (2007).
  27. J. Zhou, Y. Jaouen, L. Yi, P. Gallion, "Pump to stokes waves intensity noise transfer in cascaded Brillouin fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 912-914 (2008).
  28. F. Zarinetchi, S. P. Smith, S. Ezekiel, "Stimulated Brillouin fiber optic laser gyroscope," Opt. Lett. 16, 229-231 (1991).
  29. X. S. Yao, "High-quality microwave signal generation by use of Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1329-1331 (1997).
  30. Y. Shen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, "All-optical generation of microwave and millimeter wave using a two-frequency Bragg grating-based Brillouin fiber laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1860-1865 (2005).
  31. G. F. Shen, X. M. Zhang, H. Chi, X. F. Jin, "Microwave/millimeter-wave generation using multi-wavelength photonic crystal fiber Brillouin laser," Progr. Electromagn. Res., PIER 80, 307-320 (2008).

2008 (3)

J. Zhou, Y. Jaouen, L. Yi, P. Gallion, "Pump to stokes waves intensity noise transfer in cascaded Brillouin fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 912-914 (2008).

G. F. Shen, X. M. Zhang, H. Chi, X. F. Jin, "Microwave/millimeter-wave generation using multi-wavelength photonic crystal fiber Brillouin laser," Progr. Electromagn. Res., PIER 80, 307-320 (2008).

S. Molin, G. Baili, M. Alouini, D. Dolfi, J. Huignard, "Experimental investigation of relative intensity noise in Brillouin fiber ring lasers for microwave photonics applications," Opt. Lett. 33, 1681-1683 (2008).

2007 (2)

J. Geng, S. Jiang, "Pump-to-Stokes transfer of relative intensity noise in Brillouin fiber ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 11-13 (2007).

M. A. Mahdi, M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. Premaratne, "Enhancement of multiwavelength generation in the L-band by using a novel Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with a passive EDF booster section," Opt. Exp. 15, 11570-11575 (2007).

2006 (2)

X. Feng, H. Y. Tam, H. Liu, P. K. A. Wai, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser employing a nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 268, 278-281 (2006).

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, S. Jiang, "Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1813-1815 (2006).

2005 (5)

K. Iiyama, F. Demura, S. Takamiya, "Experimental study of lasing characteristics of Brillouin/erbium optical fiber laser," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1304-1309 (2005).

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, C. Lin, "Experimental and theoretical study of hyperfine WDM demultiplexer performance using the virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA)," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1456-1467 (2005).

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Y. Chai, E. Leong, C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).

T. A. Haddud, M. H. Al-Mansoori, A. K. Zamzuri, S. Shaharudin, M. K. Abdullah, M. A. Mahdi, "24-line of Brillouin-erbium fiber utilizing Fabry Perot cavity in L-band," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 45, 165-167 (2005).

Y. Shen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, "All-optical generation of microwave and millimeter wave using a two-frequency Bragg grating-based Brillouin fiber laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1860-1865 (2005).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

S. W. Harun, N. Tamchek, P. Poopalan, H. Ahmed, "Efficient multiwavelength generation of Brillouin/erbium fiber laser at 1600-nm region," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 506-508 (2002).

2001 (2)

A. Debut, S. Randoux, J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical study of linewidth narrowing in Brillouin fiber ring lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 18, 556-567 (2001).

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, K. Okamoto, "10-GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 577-578 (2001).

2000 (2)

A. Debut, S. Randoux, J. Zemmouri, "Linewidth narrowing in Brillouin lasers: Theoretical analysis," Phys. Rev. A62, 023803-1-023803-4 (2000).

J. Wu, Y. Li, C. Lou, Y. Gao, "Optimization of pulse compression with an unbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 180, 43-47 (2000).

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

X. S. Yao, "High-quality microwave signal generation by use of Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1329-1331 (1997).

G. J. Cowle, D. Y. Stepanov, Y. T. Chieng, "Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1198-1204 (1997).

D. Y. Stepanov, G. J. Cowle, "Properties of Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1049-1057 (1997).

1996 (4)

G. J. Cowle, D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1465-1467 (1996).

S. Yamashita, K. Hotata, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using intracavity etalon and cooled by liquid nitrogen," Electron. Lett. 32, 1298-1299 (1996).

N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, "24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium doped fiber-ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1459-1461 (1996).

G. J. Cowle, D. Y. Stepanov, "Hybrid Brillouin/erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1250-1252 (1996).

1991 (2)

1990 (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Yamashita, K. Hotata, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using intracavity etalon and cooled by liquid nitrogen," Electron. Lett. 32, 1298-1299 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Y. Stepanov, G. J. Cowle, "Properties of Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1049-1057 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

N. Park, P. F. Wysocki, "24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium doped fiber-ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1459-1461 (1996).

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Y. Chai, E. Leong, C. Lu, "Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1626-1628 (2005).

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, K. Okamoto, "10-GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 577-578 (2001).

J. Geng, S. Staines, Z. Wang, J. Zong, M. Blake, S. Jiang, "Highly stable low-noise Brillouin fiber laser with ultranarrow spectral linewidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1813-1815 (2006).

G. J. Cowle, D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1465-1467 (1996).

J. Zhou, Y. Jaouen, L. Yi, P. Gallion, "Pump to stokes waves intensity noise transfer in cascaded Brillouin fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 912-914 (2008).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K. Iiyama, F. Demura, S. Takamiya, "Experimental study of lasing characteristics of Brillouin/erbium optical fiber laser," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 1304-1309 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

Y. Shen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, "All-optical generation of microwave and millimeter wave using a two-frequency Bragg grating-based Brillouin fiber laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1860-1865 (2005).

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, C. Lin, "Experimental and theoretical study of hyperfine WDM demultiplexer performance using the virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA)," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1456-1467 (2005).

G. J. Cowle, D. Y. Stepanov, Y. T. Chieng, "Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1198-1204 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

A. Debut, S. Randoux, J. Zemmouri, "Experimental and theoretical study of linewidth narrowing in Brillouin fiber ring lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 18, 556-567 (2001).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. W. Harun, N. Tamchek, P. Poopalan, H. Ahmed, "Efficient multiwavelength generation of Brillouin/erbium fiber laser at 1600-nm region," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 506-508 (2002).

T. A. Haddud, M. H. Al-Mansoori, A. K. Zamzuri, S. Shaharudin, M. K. Abdullah, M. A. Mahdi, "24-line of Brillouin-erbium fiber utilizing Fabry Perot cavity in L-band," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 45, 165-167 (2005).

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Wu, Y. Li, C. Lou, Y. Gao, "Optimization of pulse compression with an unbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 180, 43-47 (2000).

X. Feng, H. Y. Tam, H. Liu, P. K. A. Wai, "Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser employing a nonlinear optical loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 268, 278-281 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

M. A. Mahdi, M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. Premaratne, "Enhancement of multiwavelength generation in the L-band by using a novel Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with a passive EDF booster section," Opt. Exp. 15, 11570-11575 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (10)

M. E. Fermann, F. Haberl, M. Hofer, H. Hochreiter, "Nonlinear amplified loop mirror," Opt. Lett. 15, 752-754 (1990).

K. Smith, N. J. Doran, P. G. Wigley, "Pulse shaping, compression, and pedestal suppression employing a nonlinear-optical loop mirror," Opt. Lett. 15, 1294-1296 (1990).

F. Zarinetchi, S. P. Smith, S. Ezekiel, "Stimulated Brillouin fiber optic laser gyroscope," Opt. Lett. 16, 229-231 (1991).

S. P. Smith, F. Zarinetchi, S. Ezekiel, "Narrow linewidth stimulated Brillouin fiber laser and applications," Opt. Lett. 16, 393-395 (1991).

X. S. Yao, "High-quality microwave signal generation by use of Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1329-1331 (1997).

G. J. Cowle, D. Y. Stepanov, "Hybrid Brillouin/erbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1250-1252 (1996).

D. S. Lim, H. K. Lee, K. H. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. T. Ahn, M. Y. Jeon, "Generation of multiorder Stokes and antiStokes signals in a Brillouin erbium-fiber laser with a Sagnac loop mirror," Opt. Lett. 23, 1671-1673 (1998).

K. J. Zhou, D. Y. Zhou, F. Z. Dong, N. Q. Ngo, "Room-temperature multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser employing sinusoidal phase-modulation feedback," Opt. Lett. 28, 893-895 (2003).

J. Geng, S. Jiang, "Pump-to-Stokes transfer of relative intensity noise in Brillouin fiber ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 11-13 (2007).

S. Molin, G. Baili, M. Alouini, D. Dolfi, J. Huignard, "Experimental investigation of relative intensity noise in Brillouin fiber ring lasers for microwave photonics applications," Opt. Lett. 33, 1681-1683 (2008).

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Debut, S. Randoux, J. Zemmouri, "Linewidth narrowing in Brillouin lasers: Theoretical analysis," Phys. Rev. A62, 023803-1-023803-4 (2000).

Progr. Electromagn. Res., PIER (1)

G. F. Shen, X. M. Zhang, H. Chi, X. F. Jin, "Microwave/millimeter-wave generation using multi-wavelength photonic crystal fiber Brillouin laser," Progr. Electromagn. Res., PIER 80, 307-320 (2008).

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Application of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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