Abstract

Light-emitting diodes constitute a low-cost choice for optical transmitters in medium-bit-rate optical links. An example for the latter is local-area networks. However, one of the disadvantageous properties of light-emitting diodes is their nonlinear characteristic, which may limit the data transmission performance of the system, especially in the case of multiple subcarrier modulation, which is starting to attract attention in various applications, such as visible-light communications and data transmission over polymer optical fibers. In this paper, the influence of the nonlinear transfer function of the light-emitting diodes on discrete multitone modulation is studied. The transfer function describes the dependence of the emitted optical power on the driving current. Analytical expressions for an idealized link were derived, and these equations allow the estimation of the power of the noise-like, nonlinear crosstalk between the orthogonal subcarriers. The crosstalk components of the quadrature and in-phase subcarrier components were found to be independent and approximately normally distributed. Using these results, the influence of light-emitting-diode nonlinearity on the performance of the system was investigated. The main finding was that systems using a small number of subcarriers and/or high QAM level exhibit a large signal-to-noise-ratio penalty due to the nonlinear crosstalk. The model was applied to systems with white and resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes. It is shown that the nonlinearity may severely limit the performance of the system, particularly in the case of resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, which exhibit a strong nonlinear behavior.

© 2009 IEEE

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  2. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).
  3. IrDA specifications for LED based optical wireless devices http://www.irda.org/.
  4. An example of the use of LED in an output point to point 10 Mbps data link developed by Ronja project http://ronja.twibright.com/.
  5. Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) by JVC http://www.jvc.com/press/index.jsp?item=420.
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2007 (1)

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, X. Yi, R. Evans, "Optimum design for RF-to-optical up-converter in coherent optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, (2007).

2006 (1)

A. Chorti, M. Brookes, "On the effects of memoryless nonlinearities on M-QAM and DQPSK OFDM signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, (2006).

2004 (1)

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).

2002 (1)

R. Hui, B. Zhu, R. Huang, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, D. Richards, "Subcarrier multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, (2002).

2000 (3)

A. R. Hayes, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. L. Seed, R. McLaughlin, "Baseline wander effects on systems employing digital pulse interval modulation," IEE Proc. Optoelect. 147, 295-300 (2000).

R. Windisch, A. Knobloch, M. Kuijk, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, P. Heremans, "Large signal modulation of high efficiency light emitting diodes for optical communication," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36, 1445-1453 (2000).

B. Mukherjee, "WDM optical communication networks: Progress and challenges," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

1997 (1)

C.-L. Liu, "The effect on nonlinearity on a QPSK-OFDM-QAM signal," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 443-447 (1997).

1996 (1)

G. W. Marsh, J. M. Kahn, "Performance evaluation of experimental 50-Mb/s diffuse infrared wireless link using on-off keying with decision-feedback equalization," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 1496-1504 (1996).

1994 (1)

N. J. Frigo, "A model of intermodulation distiortion in non-linear multicarrier systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 1216-1222 (1994).

1993 (1)

N. J. Frigo, M. R. Phillips, G. E. Bodeep, "Clipping distortion in lightwave CATV systems: Models, simulations, and measurements,," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 138-146 (1993).

1990 (1)

J. A. C. Bingham, "Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: An idea whose time has come," IEEE Commun. Mag. 28, 5-14 (1990).

1982 (1)

J. C. Daly, "Fiber optic intermodulation distortion," IEEE Trans. Commun. Com-30, (1982).

1966 (1)

J. H. van Vleck, D. Middleton, "The spectrum of clipped noise," Proc. IEEE 54, 2-19 (1966).

IEE Proc. Optoelect. (1)

A. R. Hayes, Z. Ghassemlooy, N. L. Seed, R. McLaughlin, "Baseline wander effects on systems employing digital pulse interval modulation," IEE Proc. Optoelect. 147, 295-300 (2000).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. A. C. Bingham, "Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: An idea whose time has come," IEEE Commun. Mag. 28, 5-14 (1990).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

R. Windisch, A. Knobloch, M. Kuijk, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, P. Heremans, "Large signal modulation of high efficiency light emitting diodes for optical communication," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36, 1445-1453 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

B. Mukherjee, "WDM optical communication networks: Progress and challenges," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, X. Yi, R. Evans, "Optimum design for RF-to-optical up-converter in coherent optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, (2007).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (3)

N. J. Frigo, "A model of intermodulation distiortion in non-linear multicarrier systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 1216-1222 (1994).

J. C. Daly, "Fiber optic intermodulation distortion," IEEE Trans. Commun. Com-30, (1982).

G. W. Marsh, J. M. Kahn, "Performance evaluation of experimental 50-Mb/s diffuse infrared wireless link using on-off keying with decision-feedback equalization," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44, 1496-1504 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. (2)

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).

C.-L. Liu, "The effect on nonlinearity on a QPSK-OFDM-QAM signal," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 443-447 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

A. Chorti, M. Brookes, "On the effects of memoryless nonlinearities on M-QAM and DQPSK OFDM signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

N. J. Frigo, M. R. Phillips, G. E. Bodeep, "Clipping distortion in lightwave CATV systems: Models, simulations, and measurements,," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 138-146 (1993).

R. Hui, B. Zhu, R. Huang, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, D. Richards, "Subcarrier multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, (2002).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. H. van Vleck, D. Middleton, "The spectrum of clipped noise," Proc. IEEE 54, 2-19 (1966).

Other (12)

D. J. G. Mestdagh, P. Spruyt, B. Biran, "Analysis of clipping effect in DMT-based ADSL systems," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (1994) pp. 293-300.

M. O'Droma, N. Mgebrishvili, A. Gloacher, "Simulation-based analysis of nonlinearites in multi-carrier OFDM signals," Proc. 5th Workshop on Singal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (2004) pp. 611-615.

E. T. Won, "IEEE 802.15 IG-VLC closing report," 1st Meet. Interesting Group TaipeiTaiwan. R.O.C. (2008) https://mentor.ieee.org/802.15/file/08/15-08-0084-01-0vlc-closing-report-january-meeting.pdf.

J. Grubor, S. C. J. Lee, K.-D. Langer, T. Koonen, J. W. Walewski, "Wireless high-speed data transmission with phosphorescent white-light LEDs," 33rd Eur. Conf. Exhibition on Optical Communication (2007) Post-Deadline Papers, PD3.6 Vol. 6.

See for example the survey of DSL applications http://www.amazon.com/Implementation-Applications-Technology-Philip-Golden/dp/0849334233/ref=pd_bxgy_b_img_b.

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

IrDA specifications for LED based optical wireless devices http://www.irda.org/.

An example of the use of LED in an output point to point 10 Mbps data link developed by Ronja project http://ronja.twibright.com/.

Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) by JVC http://www.jvc.com/press/index.jsp?item=420.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communication .

E. M. Pugh, G. H. Winslow, The Analysis of Physical Measurements (Addison-Wesley, 1966).

J. W. Walewski, Inference of Calibration Curves Non-Linear Transfer Function by Use of Orthogonal Polynomials, (2008).

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