Abstract

Reflection and Rayleigh backscattering-induced interferometric crosstalk in a link employing a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) may cause significant power penalty and, thus, limit the performance of the system. In this paper, we investigate interferometric crosstalk suppression in a centralized light generation wavelength division multiplexing-passive optical network (WDM-PON) by single-tone phase modulation either by utilizing the nonlinear behavior of the RSOA at the optical network unit (ONU) or by applying an external phase modulator at the source side. 6- and 7-dB reduction in power penalty for reflection-induced crosstalk is achieved, respectively. For Rayleigh backscattering-induced crosstalk power penalty is improved with 3 and 4.5 dB, respectively. The results show that an RSOA is very sensitive to reflections and backscattering and the tolerance to these impairments can be significantly improved by appropriate phase modulation. A comparison with advantages and disadvantages of both methods together with final recommendation is also given in the paper.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. E. Iannone, "Passive optical networks must evolve to survive," Fibre Syst. Eur. 26-27 (2008).
  2. A. M. J. Koonen, "Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: What, where, and when?," Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).
  3. Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, S. Guizani, "Internet protocol television (IPTV): The killer application for the next-generation internet," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 126-134 (2007).
  4. "Operators take on the FTTH challenge," Fibre Syst. Eur. 21-24 (2008).
  5. P. J. Urban, B. Huiszoon, R. Roy, M. M. de Laat, F. M. Huijskens, E. J. Klein, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, "High bit rate dynamically reconfigurable WDM/TDM access network," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, A143-A159 (2009).
  6. F.-T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Schrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).
  7. A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, "Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM EPON networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 277-286 (2007).
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  9. E. Wong, "Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semicondctor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 67-74 (2007).
  10. E. J. Klein, P. J. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. H. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, A. Driessen, "Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks," Opt. Exp. 15, 10 346-10 355 (2007).
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  13. A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: A review [Invited]," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 4, 737-758 (2005).
  14. Y. Shen, K. Lu, W. Gu, "Coherent and icoherent crosstalk in WDM optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 759-764 (1999).
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  18. P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Mitigation of reflection-induced crosstalk in a WDM access network," OFC OThT3.
  19. P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Rayleigh backscattering-suppression in a WDM access network employing a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Symp. pp. 147-150.
  20. H. Kim, H. C. Li, C. H. Kim, "Effects of intraband crosstalk on incoherent light using SOA-based noise sppression technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1542-1544 (2006).
  21. M. Fujiwara, J.-I. Khani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
  22. H. W. Hu, H. Anis, "Degradation of bi-directional single fiber transmission in WDM-PON due to beat noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 870-881 (2008).
  23. Y. J. Lee, Y. Cho, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Reflection Tolerance of RSOA-based WDM PON," Proc. OECC/IOOC pp. 102-103.
  24. G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).
  25. A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, D. Huff, H. Zarem, "An experimental and theoretical study of the suppression of interferometric noise and distortion in AM optical links by phase dither," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 437-443 (1997).
  26. M. Sharma, H. Ibe, T. Ozeki, "WDM ring network using a centralized multiwavelength light source and add-drop multiplexing filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 917-929 (1997).
  27. K. Inoue, "Suppression of influence of homowavelength crosstalk in an optical add/drop multiplexing system by modulating LD light frequency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1177-1179 (1999).
  28. E. Tangdiongga, I. T. Monroy, R. Jonker, H. de Waardt, "Experimental evaluation of optical crosstalk mitigation using phase scrambling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 567-569 (2000).
  29. W.-S. Jang, H.-C. Kwon, S.-K. Han, "Sppression of Rayleigh backscattering in a bidirectional WDM optical link using clipped direct modulation," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 151, 219-222 (2004).
  30. P. J. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.25–10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture," ICTON paper Th.B1.6.
  31. P. J. Urban, E. G. C. Pluk, M. M. de Laat, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, "1.25-Gb/s transmission over an access network link with tunable OADM and a reflective SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 380-382 (2009).
  32. L. Occhi, L. Schares, G. Guekos, "Phase modeling based on the alpha-factor in bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 9, 788-797 (2003).
  33. P. K. Pepeljugoski, K. Y. Lau, "Interferometric noise reduction in fiber-optic links by superposition of high frequency modulation," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 957-963 (1992).
  34. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).
  35. RSOA datasheet (Device No. 02852), Centre for Integrated Photonics.

2009 (2)

P. J. Urban, B. Huiszoon, R. Roy, M. M. de Laat, F. M. Huijskens, E. J. Klein, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, "High bit rate dynamically reconfigurable WDM/TDM access network," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, A143-A159 (2009).

P. J. Urban, E. G. C. Pluk, M. M. de Laat, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, "1.25-Gb/s transmission over an access network link with tunable OADM and a reflective SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 380-382 (2009).

2008 (3)

H. W. Hu, H. Anis, "Degradation of bi-directional single fiber transmission in WDM-PON due to beat noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 870-881 (2008).

E. Iannone, "Passive optical networks must evolve to survive," Fibre Syst. Eur. 26-27 (2008).

"Operators take on the FTTH challenge," Fibre Syst. Eur. 21-24 (2008).

2007 (4)

Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, S. Guizani, "Internet protocol television (IPTV): The killer application for the next-generation internet," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 126-134 (2007).

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, "Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM EPON networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 277-286 (2007).

E. Wong, "Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semicondctor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 67-74 (2007).

E. J. Klein, P. J. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. H. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, A. Driessen, "Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks," Opt. Exp. 15, 10 346-10 355 (2007).

2006 (3)

A. M. J. Koonen, "Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: What, where, and when?," Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).

H. Kim, H. C. Li, C. H. Kim, "Effects of intraband crosstalk on incoherent light using SOA-based noise sppression technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1542-1544 (2006).

M. Fujiwara, J.-I. Khani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: A review [Invited]," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 4, 737-758 (2005).

2004 (2)

F.-T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Schrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).

W.-S. Jang, H.-C. Kwon, S.-K. Han, "Sppression of Rayleigh backscattering in a bidirectional WDM optical link using clipped direct modulation," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 151, 219-222 (2004).

2003 (2)

L. Occhi, L. Schares, G. Guekos, "Phase modeling based on the alpha-factor in bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 9, 788-797 (2003).

T. Kamalakis, T. S. Sagriotis, "Accurate estimation of the error probability in the presence of in-band crosstalk noise in WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2172-2181 (2003).

2000 (1)

E. Tangdiongga, I. T. Monroy, R. Jonker, H. de Waardt, "Experimental evaluation of optical crosstalk mitigation using phase scrambling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 567-569 (2000).

1999 (3)

R. Khosravani, M. I. Hayee, B. H. E. Willner, "Reduction of Coherent Crosstalk in WDM Add/Drop Multiplexing Nodes by Bit Pattern Misalignment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 134-136 (1999).

K. Inoue, "Suppression of influence of homowavelength crosstalk in an optical add/drop multiplexing system by modulating LD light frequency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1177-1179 (1999).

Y. Shen, K. Lu, W. Gu, "Coherent and icoherent crosstalk in WDM optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 759-764 (1999).

1997 (2)

A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, D. Huff, H. Zarem, "An experimental and theoretical study of the suppression of interferometric noise and distortion in AM optical links by phase dither," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 437-443 (1997).

M. Sharma, H. Ibe, T. Ozeki, "WDM ring network using a centralized multiwavelength light source and add-drop multiplexing filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 917-929 (1997).

1996 (1)

P. J. Legg, M. Tur, I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interference noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1943-1954 (1996).

1992 (1)

P. K. Pepeljugoski, K. Y. Lau, "Interferometric noise reduction in fiber-optic links by superposition of high frequency modulation," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 957-963 (1992).

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

Fibre Syst. Eur. (2)

"Operators take on the FTTH challenge," Fibre Syst. Eur. 21-24 (2008).

E. Iannone, "Passive optical networks must evolve to survive," Fibre Syst. Eur. 26-27 (2008).

IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. (1)

W.-S. Jang, H.-C. Kwon, S.-K. Han, "Sppression of Rayleigh backscattering in a bidirectional WDM optical link using clipped direct modulation," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 151, 219-222 (2004).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. Xiao, X. Du, J. Zhang, F. Hu, S. Guizani, "Internet protocol television (IPTV): The killer application for the next-generation internet," IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 126-134 (2007).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

P. K. Pepeljugoski, K. Y. Lau, "Interferometric noise reduction in fiber-optic links by superposition of high frequency modulation," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 957-963 (1992).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (1)

L. Occhi, L. Schares, G. Guekos, "Phase modeling based on the alpha-factor in bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 9, 788-797 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

P. J. Urban, E. G. C. Pluk, M. M. de Laat, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, "1.25-Gb/s transmission over an access network link with tunable OADM and a reflective SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 380-382 (2009).

K. Inoue, "Suppression of influence of homowavelength crosstalk in an optical add/drop multiplexing system by modulating LD light frequency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1177-1179 (1999).

E. Tangdiongga, I. T. Monroy, R. Jonker, H. de Waardt, "Experimental evaluation of optical crosstalk mitigation using phase scrambling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 567-569 (2000).

H. Kim, H. C. Li, C. H. Kim, "Effects of intraband crosstalk on incoherent light using SOA-based noise sppression technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1542-1544 (2006).

R. Khosravani, M. I. Hayee, B. H. E. Willner, "Reduction of Coherent Crosstalk in WDM Add/Drop Multiplexing Nodes by Bit Pattern Misalignment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 134-136 (1999).

IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

P. J. Urban, B. Huiszoon, R. Roy, M. M. de Laat, F. M. Huijskens, E. J. Klein, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. de Waardt, "High bit rate dynamically reconfigurable WDM/TDM access network," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, A143-A159 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (10)

F.-T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Schrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, A. Shami, "Dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation in hybrid TDM/WDM EPON networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 277-286 (2007).

E. Wong, "Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semicondctor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 67-74 (2007).

T. Kamalakis, T. S. Sagriotis, "Accurate estimation of the error probability in the presence of in-band crosstalk noise in WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2172-2181 (2003).

Y. Shen, K. Lu, W. Gu, "Coherent and icoherent crosstalk in WDM optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 759-764 (1999).

P. J. Legg, M. Tur, I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interference noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1943-1954 (1996).

M. Fujiwara, J.-I. Khani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).

H. W. Hu, H. Anis, "Degradation of bi-directional single fiber transmission in WDM-PON due to beat noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 870-881 (2008).

A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, D. Huff, H. Zarem, "An experimental and theoretical study of the suppression of interferometric noise and distortion in AM optical links by phase dither," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 437-443 (1997).

M. Sharma, H. Ibe, T. Ozeki, "WDM ring network using a centralized multiwavelength light source and add-drop multiplexing filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 917-929 (1997).

Opt. Exp. (1)

E. J. Klein, P. J. Urban, G. Sengo, L. T. H. Hilderink, M. Hoekman, R. Pellens, P. van Dijk, A. Driessen, "Densely integrated microring resonator based photonic devices for use in access networks," Opt. Exp. 15, 10 346-10 355 (2007).

OSA J. Opt. Netw. (1)

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: A review [Invited]," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 4, 737-758 (2005).

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. M. J. Koonen, "Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: What, where, and when?," Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).

Other (9)

L. Xu, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. J. H. Sander-Jochem, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. N. K. Smit, "InP based polarization insensitive tunable duplexer and integrated reflective transceiver," Proc. ECIO pp. 1-4.

J. Prat, E. B. Pere, M. G. Joan, D. Oscar, Fiber-to-the-Home Technologies (Kluwer, 2002).

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent crosstalk-suppression in WDM access networks employing reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proc. IEEE ECOC pp. 91-92.

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Mitigation of reflection-induced crosstalk in a WDM access network," OFC OThT3.

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Rayleigh backscattering-suppression in a WDM access network employing a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Symp. pp. 147-150.

Y. J. Lee, Y. Cho, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Reflection Tolerance of RSOA-based WDM PON," Proc. OECC/IOOC pp. 102-103.

P. J. Urban, E. J. Klein, L. Xu, E. G. C. Pluk, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.25–10 Gbit/s reconfigurable access network architecture," ICTON paper Th.B1.6.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

RSOA datasheet (Device No. 02852), Centre for Integrated Photonics.

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